Objectives. To determine preradiation and preoperative clinical staging and postoperative pathologic factors that can predict disease-free survival in patients undergoing salvage surgery for radio-recurrent prostate cancer. Methods. A retrospective review was performed on 40 patients who underwent salvage surgery for radio-recurrent prostate cancer. Preradiation and preoperative clinical staging factors, as well as pathologic stage were analyzed as predictors of disease-free survival. Biochemical failure was defined as a persistent serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) elevation greater than 0.4 ng/mL. Results. As a group, salvage surgery provided excellent clinical disease control in 35 of 40 patients (87.5%). Overall, 18 of 38 (47.4%) patients analyzed had no evidence of biochemical progression. Preradiation clinical stage and pathologically organ-confined disease were statistically significant predictors of disease-free survival (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively). Seminal vesicle invasion and positive lymph nodes were the worst pathologic prognostic factors. Preoperative clinical T1c disease approached statistical significance in predicting pathologically organ- confined disease and disease-free survival (P = 0.08 and P = 0.07, respectively). Conclusions. Ideal candidates for salvage surgery should have preradiation and preoperative clinically organ-confined disease. All patients with pathologically organ-confined disease following salvage prostatectomy were disease free at a mean follow-up of 36.1 months. Salvage surgery, although technically feasible, should not be widely advocated as an effective curative treatment in patients with locally advanced disease at the time of diagnosis.
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