Prevalence and correlates of pain and pain treatment in a Western Kenya referral hospital

Kristin T.L. Huang, Claudio Owino, Gregory P. Gramelspacher, Patrick O. Monahan, Rebeka Tabbey, Mildred Hagembe, Robert M. Strother, Festus Njuguna, Rachel C. Vreeman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Pain is often inadequately evaluated and treated in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Objective: We sought to assess pain levels and pain treatment in 400 hospitalized patients at a national referral hospital in western Kenya, and to identify factors associated with pain and pain treatment. Design: Using face-validated Kiswahili versions of two single-item pain assessment tools, the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R), we determined patients' pain levels. Additional data collected included patient demographics, prescribed analgesics, and administered analgesics. We calculated mean pain ratings and pain management index (PMI) scores. Results: Averaged between the NRS and FPS-R, 80.5% of patients endorsed a nonzero level of pain and 30% of patients reported moderate to severe pain. Older patients, patients with HIV, and cancer patients had higher pain ratings. Sixty-six percent of patients had been prescribed analgesics at some point during their hospitalization, the majority of which were nonopioids. A majority of patients (66%) had undertreated pain (negative scores on the PMI). Conclusion: This study shows that hospitalized patients in Kenya are experiencing pain and that this pain is often undertreated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1260-1267
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of palliative medicine
Volume16
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2013

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Kenya
Referral and Consultation
Pain
Therapeutics
Analgesics
Facial Pain
Pain Management
Africa South of the Sahara
Pain Measurement
Hospitalization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Cite this

Huang, K. T. L., Owino, C., Gramelspacher, G. P., Monahan, P. O., Tabbey, R., Hagembe, M., ... Vreeman, R. C. (2013). Prevalence and correlates of pain and pain treatment in a Western Kenya referral hospital. Journal of palliative medicine, 16(10), 1260-1267. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2013.0080

Prevalence and correlates of pain and pain treatment in a Western Kenya referral hospital. / Huang, Kristin T.L.; Owino, Claudio; Gramelspacher, Gregory P.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Tabbey, Rebeka; Hagembe, Mildred; Strother, Robert M.; Njuguna, Festus; Vreeman, Rachel C.

In: Journal of palliative medicine, Vol. 16, No. 10, 01.10.2013, p. 1260-1267.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Huang, KTL, Owino, C, Gramelspacher, GP, Monahan, PO, Tabbey, R, Hagembe, M, Strother, RM, Njuguna, F & Vreeman, RC 2013, 'Prevalence and correlates of pain and pain treatment in a Western Kenya referral hospital', Journal of palliative medicine, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1260-1267. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2013.0080
Huang, Kristin T.L. ; Owino, Claudio ; Gramelspacher, Gregory P. ; Monahan, Patrick O. ; Tabbey, Rebeka ; Hagembe, Mildred ; Strother, Robert M. ; Njuguna, Festus ; Vreeman, Rachel C. / Prevalence and correlates of pain and pain treatment in a Western Kenya referral hospital. In: Journal of palliative medicine. 2013 ; Vol. 16, No. 10. pp. 1260-1267.
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