To estimate age group differences in the prevalence and outcomes of three common and often comorbid metabolic conditions (i.e., obesity, hypertension, and diabetes) and heart disease. Design: Nationally representative prospective cohort study. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: 9825 adults aged 51 to 61 years (middle-age) in 1992, and 7370 adults aged 70 years and over (older-age) in 1993. Measurements: Two-year dichotomous outcomes included: doctor visits, hospitalization, mobility difficulty, activity of daily living limitation, poor perceived health, and mortality. Odds ratios (OR) were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and history of cancer or lung disease. Results: Those with one condition represented 80% and 70% of the middle- and older-age groups, respectively, while just 1-2% of each age group reported all three metabolic conditions. Thirteen percent and 32%, respectively, reported heart disease with or without metabolic conditions. Diabetes comorbid with other metabolic conditions, and particularly with heart disease, substantially elevated the risk of adverse outcomes such as health-related quality of life deficits, health services use, and mortality in both middle- and older-age adults. In the middle-age group, the OR was 6.81 for mortality in patients with a combination of obesity and diabetes and 6.10 in those with a combination of heart disease and diabetes. There also were significant ORs for mortality in middle-aged patients with heart disease (OR = 2.40), diabetes (OR = 2.63) and for those with a combination of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes (OR = 3.26). Conclusion: The impact of these often comorbid conditions underscores the importance of targeted and aggressive prevention, particularly among middle-age adults.
- Health services use
- Health-related quality of life
- Metabolic syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health