Prevalence and predictors of PTSD and depression among adolescent victims of the Spring 2011 tornado outbreak

Zachary Adams, Jennifer A. Sumner, Carla Kmett Danielson, Jenna L. McCauley, Heidi S. Resnick, Kirstin Grös, Lisa A. Paul, Kyleen E. Welsh, Kenneth J. Ruggiero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Relatively few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episode (MDE) in disaster-affected adolescents. Fewer still have administered diagnostic measures or studied samples exposed to tornadoes, a common type of disaster. Further, methodologic problems limit the generalizability of previous findings. This study addressed prevalence estimates and risk factors for PTSD and MDE among adolescents exposed to the Spring 2011 tornado outbreak in Alabama and Joplin, Missouri. Methods A large (N = 2000), population-based sample of adolescents and caregivers, recruited randomly from tornado-affected communities, participated in structured telephone interviews. PTSD and MDE prevalence were estimated for the overall sample, by gender, and by age. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for PTSD and MDE. Results Overall, 6.7% of adolescents met diagnostic criteria for PTSD and 7.5% of adolescents met diagnostic criteria for MDE since the tornado. Girls were significantly more likely than boys to meet diagnostic criteria for MDE, and older adolescents were more likely than younger adolescents to report MDE since the tornado. Female gender, prior trauma exposure, and an injured family member were associated with greater risk for PTSD and MDE. Specific incident characteristics (loss of services, concern about others' safety) were associated with greater PTSD risk; prior disaster exposure was associated with lower MDE risk. Conclusions However, most adolescents were resilient following tornado exposure, roughly 1 in 15 developed PTSD, 1 in 13 developed MDE, and many more endorsed subclinical mental health problems. Information regarding specific risk factors can guide early screening, prevention, and intervention efforts in disaster-affected communities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1047-1055
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines
Volume55
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Tornadoes
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders
Disease Outbreaks
Depression
Disasters
Caregivers
Mental Health
Cross-Sectional Studies
Logistic Models
Interviews
Safety

Keywords

  • adolescents
  • depression
  • Disaster
  • PTSD
  • tornadoes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Prevalence and predictors of PTSD and depression among adolescent victims of the Spring 2011 tornado outbreak. / Adams, Zachary; Sumner, Jennifer A.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Grös, Kirstin; Paul, Lisa A.; Welsh, Kyleen E.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, Vol. 55, No. 9, 2014, p. 1047-1055.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Adams, Z, Sumner, JA, Danielson, CK, McCauley, JL, Resnick, HS, Grös, K, Paul, LA, Welsh, KE & Ruggiero, KJ 2014, 'Prevalence and predictors of PTSD and depression among adolescent victims of the Spring 2011 tornado outbreak', Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 1047-1055. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12220
Adams, Zachary ; Sumner, Jennifer A. ; Danielson, Carla Kmett ; McCauley, Jenna L. ; Resnick, Heidi S. ; Grös, Kirstin ; Paul, Lisa A. ; Welsh, Kyleen E. ; Ruggiero, Kenneth J. / Prevalence and predictors of PTSD and depression among adolescent victims of the Spring 2011 tornado outbreak. In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines. 2014 ; Vol. 55, No. 9. pp. 1047-1055.
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AU - Sumner, Jennifer A.

AU - Danielson, Carla Kmett

AU - McCauley, Jenna L.

AU - Resnick, Heidi S.

AU - Grös, Kirstin

AU - Paul, Lisa A.

AU - Welsh, Kyleen E.

AU - Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

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N2 - Background Relatively few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episode (MDE) in disaster-affected adolescents. Fewer still have administered diagnostic measures or studied samples exposed to tornadoes, a common type of disaster. Further, methodologic problems limit the generalizability of previous findings. This study addressed prevalence estimates and risk factors for PTSD and MDE among adolescents exposed to the Spring 2011 tornado outbreak in Alabama and Joplin, Missouri. Methods A large (N = 2000), population-based sample of adolescents and caregivers, recruited randomly from tornado-affected communities, participated in structured telephone interviews. PTSD and MDE prevalence were estimated for the overall sample, by gender, and by age. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for PTSD and MDE. Results Overall, 6.7% of adolescents met diagnostic criteria for PTSD and 7.5% of adolescents met diagnostic criteria for MDE since the tornado. Girls were significantly more likely than boys to meet diagnostic criteria for MDE, and older adolescents were more likely than younger adolescents to report MDE since the tornado. Female gender, prior trauma exposure, and an injured family member were associated with greater risk for PTSD and MDE. Specific incident characteristics (loss of services, concern about others' safety) were associated with greater PTSD risk; prior disaster exposure was associated with lower MDE risk. Conclusions However, most adolescents were resilient following tornado exposure, roughly 1 in 15 developed PTSD, 1 in 13 developed MDE, and many more endorsed subclinical mental health problems. Information regarding specific risk factors can guide early screening, prevention, and intervention efforts in disaster-affected communities.

AB - Background Relatively few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episode (MDE) in disaster-affected adolescents. Fewer still have administered diagnostic measures or studied samples exposed to tornadoes, a common type of disaster. Further, methodologic problems limit the generalizability of previous findings. This study addressed prevalence estimates and risk factors for PTSD and MDE among adolescents exposed to the Spring 2011 tornado outbreak in Alabama and Joplin, Missouri. Methods A large (N = 2000), population-based sample of adolescents and caregivers, recruited randomly from tornado-affected communities, participated in structured telephone interviews. PTSD and MDE prevalence were estimated for the overall sample, by gender, and by age. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for PTSD and MDE. Results Overall, 6.7% of adolescents met diagnostic criteria for PTSD and 7.5% of adolescents met diagnostic criteria for MDE since the tornado. Girls were significantly more likely than boys to meet diagnostic criteria for MDE, and older adolescents were more likely than younger adolescents to report MDE since the tornado. Female gender, prior trauma exposure, and an injured family member were associated with greater risk for PTSD and MDE. Specific incident characteristics (loss of services, concern about others' safety) were associated with greater PTSD risk; prior disaster exposure was associated with lower MDE risk. Conclusions However, most adolescents were resilient following tornado exposure, roughly 1 in 15 developed PTSD, 1 in 13 developed MDE, and many more endorsed subclinical mental health problems. Information regarding specific risk factors can guide early screening, prevention, and intervention efforts in disaster-affected communities.

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