Prevalence and trends in dietary supplement use among US adults with diabetes: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999-2014

Jing Li, Xinli Li, Wambui Gathirua-Mwangi, Yiqing Song

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


Objective To evaluate overall prevalence and trends of use of any supplements, multivitamins/multiminerals (MVMM), individual vitamins, minerals, and non-vitamin, non-mineral (NVNM) supplements among adults with diabetes in the USA. Research design and methods We used a nationally representative sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey collected between 1999 and 2014. Information on supplement use in the preceding 30 days was collected during interview over 8 continuous 2-year waves. To account for the complex sampling design, weighted analyses were conducted among 6688 US adults with diabetes aged 20-85 years and also stratified by age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, comorbidity status, and diabetes duration. Results Overall, the prevalence of any supplement use (52%-58%; P for trend=0.08) and that of any mineral use (47%-51%; P for trend=0.23) seemed stable over the years studied. Reported use of MVMM slightly decreased from 36% to 32% (P for trend=0.006). Use of any vitamin products significantly increased from 47% to 52% (P for trend=0.03). Use of some individual supplements, especially vitamin D, choline, lycopene, and fish oil supplements, significantly increased, while some vitamins, minerals and NVNM supplements decreased over the years. In addition, the trend of any supplement use varied by age, sex, race/ethnicity, or education, but not by diabetes duration or diabetic comorbidities. Conclusions Among US patients with diabetes, use of any dietary supplements or any minerals remained stable, while MVMM use slightly decreased and use of any vitamins increased. Additionally, use of several individual supplements varied significantly over the 16-year period studied.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere000925
JournalBMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 14 2020



  • diabetes
  • dietary supplement
  • multi-vitamins/multi-minerals (MVMM)
  • non-vitamin, non-mineral (NVNM)
  • the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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