Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown etiology characterized by ongoing inflammation, destruction, and fibrosis of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. Irregular narrowing and dilation of the biliary duct system produces the characteristic beaded pattern seen on cholangiogram. Malignant degeneration resulting in cholangiocarcinoma is a well-recognized sequela of PSC. Bile duct brushing cytology is the primary screening technique for cholangiocarcinoma. It is associated with a relatively low sensitivity but high specificity. Few false positive bile duct brushings have been reported in the literature, with the majority of these having occurred in a background of PSC. We report two patients with PSC in whom bile duct brush cytologies were falsely positive for carcinoma.
- Brushing cytology
- False positive diagnosis
- Primary sclerosing cholangitis
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