Background: TransCarotid Revascularization (TCAR) with dynamic flow reversal using the ENROUTE Neuroprotection System (ENPS) is a Food and Drug Administration–approved alternative carotid revascularization modality. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether TCAR in a hostile (fibrotic) surgical field increases procedural complexity and postoperative complications. Methods: Perioperative variables for all institutional TCARs performed between December 2015 and April 2019 were prospectively captured. Procedures performed as part of the ongoing ROADSTER-2 registry were excluded. Univariate analysis, consisting of Student's T and Fisher's exact testing, comparing virgin and hostile neck TCAR, was performed at an alpha of 0.05. Results: During the study period, 149 total procedures (n = 30, hostile ipsilateral necks) qualified for inclusion. Both hostile and virgin neck groups were comparable with respect to preoperative comorbidities and medication profiles. The ipsilateral hostile neck cohort consisted of ten patients who underwent previous ipsilateral neck radiation and 23 who were status after neck dissection (3 had both). Intraoperatively, there were no differences with respect to estimated blood loss (47.2 vs. 44.8 mL, P = 0.81), operative time (69.5 vs. 74.5 min, P = 0.38), reverse flow time (12.4 vs. 10.4 min, P = 0.34), radiation exposure (217.7 vs. 226.2 mGy, P = 0.88), fluoroscopy time (5.4 vs. 5.0 min, P = 0.65), contrast usage (23.5 vs. 25.0 mL, P = 0.55), and ability to achieve technical success (96.7% vs. 100%, P = 0.58) between virgin and hostile necks, respectively. Perioperative (30-day) ipsilateral stroke and death rate was 2.5% vs. 0% (P = 1.0) and 2.5% vs. 0% (P = 1.0), respectively, between virgin and hostile necks. We observed one postoperative cranial nerve injury in any of our TCAR patients (hostile neck, P = 0.20). Finally, a total of 3 hematomas (requiring washout) occurred in our (2 in virgin necks and one in a hostile neck) surgical cohort (P = 0.49). Conclusions: Based on this limited, small series, TCAR in hostile surgical fields is not associated with an increase in case complexity and maintains a similar perioperative risk to virgin field procedures.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine