Promoter context- and response element-dependent specificity of the transcriptional activation and modulating functions of retinoic acid receptors

Sunil Nagpal, Michael Saunders, Philippe Kastner, Béatrice Durand, Harikrishna Nakshatri, Pierre Chambon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

291 Scopus citations


Using several naturally occurring and synthetic retinoic acid (RA)-responsive reporter genes, we show that the patterns of transcriptional activation by various retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) forms vary according to the nature of the RA response element and the context of the stimulated promoter. We demonstrate the presence of autonomous, ligand-inducible, and promoter context-dependent transactivation functions (AF-2s) located in the C-terminal region of all RARs and RXRs. In addition, promoter context-specific modulating transactivation functions are associated with the N-terminal A and B regions of RARs and RXRs. We also show that these transactivation and modulating functions exhibit response-element specificity. The modulating functions display a marked specificity in their cooperation with the AF-2 transactivation functions, cooperation that depends on the receptor origin of the modulating and transactivation functions and the promoter context of the RA-responsive gene, thus accounting for the specific transactivation properties of RAR and RXR types.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1007-1019
Number of pages13
Issue number6
StatePublished - Sep 18 1992


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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