Objectives: To review the proposed mechanisms of cognitive changes associated with non-central nervous system cancers and cancer treatment. Data Sources: Review and synthesis of databased publications and review articles. Conclusion: Proposed mechanisms include cytokine upregulation, hormonal changes, neurotransmitter dysregulation, attentional fatigue, genetic predisposition, and comorbid symptoms. Implications for Nursing Practice: Oncology nurses need to understand the multiple mechanisms that may contribute to the development of cancer- and treatment-related cognitive changes so that they can identify patients at high risk and help patients understand why these changes occur.
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