Cyclooxygenase enzymes play an important role in carcinogenesis, and increased expression of cyclooxygenase enzymes has been reported in cancers arising at a number of different sites. Most, if not all of these actions are thought to be mediated by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The actions of PGE2 are mediated via four main prostanoid receptors, designated EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4, based on their different pharmacological properties and secondary messenger pathways. Recently, expression of EP1 has been reported in rat mammary gland and the inhibition of this receptor has been documented to have chemopreventive effect in this animal model. EP1 has also been shown to decrease the incidence of colon cancer in mouse models. In this study, we analysed the expression of EP1 in normal and malignant breast tissues. Expression of EP1 was analysed in breast (benign and cancer) cell lines by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and by western blot analyses. Expression was also analysed by immunohistochemistry in normal breast tissues and in 89 cases of breast cancer. Semiquantitative analysis of the staining was performed. The data were compared with and correlated with other prognostic factors like tumour size, tumour grade, lymph node status, oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor (PR), HER2/neu and cyclooxygenase-2. EP1 expression was demonstrated in human breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. Expression of EP1 was seen both in the cytoplasm and/or in the nuclear membrane in majority of cases. Nuclear EP1 expression correlated with PR (P=0.032) and inversely with node positivity (P=0.025). However, EP1 expression did not correlate with expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (P=0.059). Expression of EP1 is frequently seen in human breast cancers. Nuclear expression of EP1 correlates with good prognosis markers like node negative status and PR expression.
- Breast cancer
- EP1 receptor
- Prostanoid receptor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine