Rates of prostate cancer (PCa) have increased so dramatically over the last decade that the age adjusted incidence rate for PCa is now greater than that any other cancer among men in the United States. This review, published as a three part series, provides a state-of-art assessment of the PCa problem in its divergent aspects. Part 1 covers epidemiology, incidence and progression. Several epidemiological studies have demostrated that first degree male relatives of men with PCa are at increased risk of developing the disease. Familial and genetic factors as well as medical, anthropometric, dietary, hormonal and occupational factors involved in PCa are discussed. Postmortem examination of the prostate in men without evidence of PCa documented a high frequency of adenocarcinoma. Latent disease occurred as early as the second decade of life. Although there is no significant difference in incidence between Caucasian and African-American males, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is higher in the latter group. While dietary fat, androgens and certain environmental factors may be determinants for PCa, the exact mechanism of tumorigenesis is still relatively unknown. The current thinking of the role of genomic instability, chromosomal alterations, tumor suppressor genes and the androgen receptor are explored.
- prostate cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Cancer Research