Prostatic adenocarcinoma remains the most common cancer affecting men. A substantial majority of patients have the diagnosis made on thin needle biopsies, most often in the absence of a palpable abnormality. Treatment choices ranging from surveillance to radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy are largely driven by the pathologic findings in the biopsy specimen. The first part of this review focuses on important morphologic parameters in needle biopsy specimens that are not covered in the accompanying articles. This includes tumor quantification as well as other parameters such a extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, perineural invasion, and lymphovascular invasion. For those men who undergo radical prostatectomy, pathologic stage and other parameters are critical in prognostication and in determining the appropriateness of adjuvant therapy. Staging parameters, including extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, and lymph node status are discussed here. Surgical margin status is also an important parameter and definitions and reporting of this feature are detailed. Throughout the article the current reporting guidelines published by the College of American Pathologists and the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting are highlighted.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine