In the present study, we investigated protein expression of the transcription factors mammalian doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (DMRT1), basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor-like 5 (TCLF5), and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) in normal human spermatogenesis, testicular mixed germ cell–sex cord stromal tumor (MGC-SCST), spermatocytic tumor, and seminoma. In normal human spermatogenesis, DMRT1 is expressed in the nuclei of spermatogonia but not in those of more mature germ cells. By way of contrast, TCLF5 is expressed in the nuclei of some clusters of primary spermatocytes that have entered meiosis 1, in secondary spermatocytes, and in round (early) spermatids in the seminiferous tubules of adults during the reproductive years. OCT4 is expressed in primordial germ cells but not in the seminiferous tubules of the normal adult testis during the reproductive years. DMRT1 is expressed in the germ cells of both testicular MGC-SCST and spermatocytic tumor, whereas TCLF5 is not expressed in either neoplasm. These low-grade neoplasms, however, differ histologically in that all the germ cell nuclei of testicular MGC-SCST resemble spermatogonia, whereas in spermatocytic tumor, the nuclei of the medium-sized and large cells resemble those of primary spermatocytes. Both neoplasms lack expression of OCT4. By way of contrast, in seminoma, a fully malignant testicular germ cell tumor, the germ cell nuclei express OCT4 but do not express either DMRT1 or TCLF5.
- Mixed germ cell–sex cord stromal tumor
- Spermatocytic tumor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine