Psychometric properties and cultural adaptation of sleep disturbance measures in Arabic-speaking populations: A systematic review

Mohammed Al Maqbali, Lynn Dunwoody, Jane Rankin, Eileen Hacker, Ciara Hughes, Jackie Gracey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Scopus citations


The aim of this review was to evaluate the psychometric properties and cross-cultural adaptation of sleep disturbance scales that have been translated into Arabic or originally developed in Arabic, and to identify appropriate scales that can be used in research and clinical practice intended for Arabic-speaking participants. The following databases were searched: CINAHL (2003–2019), MEDLINE (1946–2019), EMBASE (1980–2019), PsycINFO (1806–2019) and Cochrane Library (1806–2019). This review was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Terwee et al. (J. Clin. Epidemiol., 60, 2007, 34) quality assessment was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the studies, and cross-cultural adaptation was assessed using criteria from Guillemin, Bombardier, and Beaton (J. Clin. Epidemiol., 46, 1993, 1417). Seven studies met the inclusion criteria, which included four scales: the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Arabic Scale of Insomnia. Cross-cultural adaptations scored between good and poor; psychometric properties information was missing for most scales. The review suggested that Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index may be a useful scale to measure sleep disturbance, as the scale showed good cultural adaptation and acceptable psychometric properties in an Arabic population. Furthermore, the scales measure seven different aspects of sleep quality. This review provides options to help researchers and clinicians select the most appropriate instrument for their practice. Further psychometric testing and cultural adaptation is required for sleep scales used in Arabic clinical populations to ensure validity and reliability in outcome measurement for research studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere12877
JournalJournal of Sleep Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2020


  • Arabic
  • cross-cultural adaptation
  • measurement properties
  • review
  • sleep disturbance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

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