Pulmonary Histoplasmosis Syndromes

Recognition, Diagnosis, and Management

L. Joseph Wheat, Dewey Conces, Stephen D. Allen, Debotah Blue-Hnidy, James Loyd

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

75 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Pulmonary manifestations are the hallmark of histoplasmosis. Clinical syndromes range from asymptomatic infection to diffuse alveolar disease causing respiratory difficulty and even death. Serologic tests for antibodies and antigen detection are especially helpful in the diagnosis of histoplasmosis but are frequently overlooked. Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum antigen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid may be particularly helpful in patients with acute pulmonary histoplasmosis or disseminated disease with pulmonary involvement. Topics of special importance for pulmonary disease specialists include the approach to the exclusion of histoplasmosis in the evaluation of patients with suspected sarcoidosis, differentiation of pulmonary histoplasmosis and malignancy in those with lung masses or mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and recognition and management of chronic pulmonary and mediastinal manifestations of histoplasmosis. Although histoplasmosis is mild and self-limited in most healthy individuals, antifungal therapy is indicated in those with acute diffuse pulmonary infection, chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis, progressive disseminated disease, and perhaps mediastinal adenitis accompanied by obstructive symptoms. Antifungal therapy to prevent reactivation of histoplasmosis during immunosuppressive therapy, or transition of mediastinal adenitis to fibrosing mediastinitis, although controversial, is not recommended. Several new drugs active against H. capsulatum offer alternatives in patients failing or intolerant of current therapies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)129-144
Number of pages16
JournalSeminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Volume25
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2004

Fingerprint

Histoplasmosis
Lung
Histoplasma
Lymphadenitis
Lung Diseases
Mediastinal Diseases
Pulmonary Sarcoidosis
Antigens
Asymptomatic Infections
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
Serologic Tests
Therapeutics
Immunosuppressive Agents
Antibodies

Keywords

  • Fibrosing mediastinitis
  • Granuloma
  • Lung mass
  • Nodule
  • Sarcoidosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Critical Care

Cite this

Pulmonary Histoplasmosis Syndromes : Recognition, Diagnosis, and Management. / Wheat, L. Joseph; Conces, Dewey; Allen, Stephen D.; Blue-Hnidy, Debotah; Loyd, James.

In: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 2, 04.2004, p. 129-144.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Wheat, L. Joseph ; Conces, Dewey ; Allen, Stephen D. ; Blue-Hnidy, Debotah ; Loyd, James. / Pulmonary Histoplasmosis Syndromes : Recognition, Diagnosis, and Management. In: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2004 ; Vol. 25, No. 2. pp. 129-144.
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