Adenovirus (Ad) infection has been identified as predisposing hosts to the development of pulmonary disease through unknown mechanisms. Lung dendritic cells (DCs) are vital for initiating pulmonary immune responses; however, the effects of Ad infection on primary lung DC have not been studied. In contrast to the effects on bone marrow- and monocyte-derived DCs, the current study shows that Ad infection of marine BALB/c lung DCs in vitro and in vivo suppresses DC-induced T-cell proliferation. The effect of Ad on DCs was not due to a downregulation of major histocompatibility complex or costimulatory molecules. Analysis of the production of interleukin-12 (IL-12), alpha interferon (IFN-α), and IFN-γ by the Ad-infected DCs shows no significant differences over noninfected control lung DCs. Ad-induced suppression was not due to a deficiency of IL-2 or other DC-secreted factors and was dependent on viral protein synthesis, as UV irradiation of Ad abrogated the suppressive effect. Results suggest that Ad-infected DCs induce T cells to be nonresponsive to IL-2 during primary coculture, as the addition of IL-2 in secondary cultures recovered T-cell proliferation. In vivo studies supported in vitro results showing that Ad infection resulted in lung T cells with decreased proliferative ability. This study demonstrates that Ad infection induces local immunoincompetence by altering DC-T-cell interactions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science