A 21-year-old woman presented with flank pain, and an abdominal and pelvic CT scan demonstrated a left 7.4-cm simple cyst superior to the left kidney. She underwent laparoscopic cyst decortication complicated by a diaphragmatic injury and pneumothorax. The final pathology report described a retroperitoneal pulmonary sequestration (RPS). Urologists need to consider RPS in the differential diagnosis of a retroperitoneal cyst because of the associated morbidity of hemorrhage during surgical excision. With the widespread use abdominal imaging techniques, more cases of RPS are likely to be identified and referred for laparoscopic management.
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