We have purified and cloned a HeLa cell nuclear protein that strongly stimulates binding of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors (RARs and TRs) to response elements. The purified protein is a human retinoid X receptor β (hRXRβ). Three murine members of the RXR family (mRXRα, β, and γ) have also been cloned, and their interactions with RARs and TRs have been investigated. Under conditions where RAR, RXR, and TR bound poorly as homodimers to various response elements, strongly cooperative RAR-RXR and TR-RXR binding was observed. The binding efficiency was dependent on the sequence, relative orientation, and spacing of the repeated motifs of response elements. We show also that unstable RAR-RXR heterodimers were formed in solution, and that C-terminal sequences and the DNA-binding domains of both receptors were required for efficient formation of stable heterodimers on response elements. These findings suggest a convergence of the signaling pathways of some members of the nuclear receptor superfamily.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)