Cognitive impairment is a clinically complex symptom commonly experienced by cancer survivors. Although research in this area has grown, many questions remain regarding underlying mechanisms, trajectory, and specific interventions nurses can offer patients to prevent, treat, and manage cognitive impairment effectively. As part of the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) Putting Evidence Into Practice (PEP) initiative, a comprehensive examination of the current literature was conducted to identify effective interventions for cognitive impairment in cancer survivors. The studies were categorized into nonpharmacologic interventions, including complementary and alternative therapies and cognitive training, and pharmacologic interventions, including psychostimulants and erythropoietin-stimulating agents. Using the ONS PEP Weight of Evidence Classification Schema, the levels of evidence for these interventions were consistent with the categories of effectiveness not established or not recommended for practice. Additional research is needed to identify effective preventive and treatment strategies for cognitive impairment in cancer survivors.
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