Racial differences in cortical bone and their relationship to biochemical variables in Black and White children in the early stages of puberty

S. J. Warden, K. M. Hill, A. J. Ferira, E. M. Laing, B. R. Martin, D. B. Hausman, C. M. Weaver, Munro Peacock, R. D. Lewis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Osteoporotic fracture rates differ according to race with Blacks having up to half the rate of Whites. The current study demonstrates that racial divergence in cortical bone properties develops in early childhood despite lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Blacks. Introduction: Racial differences in bone structure likely have roots in childhood as bone size develops predominantly during growth. This study aimed to compare cortical bone health within the tibial diaphysis of Black and White children in the early stages of puberty and explore the contributions of biochemical variables in explaining racial variation in cortical bone properties. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed comparing peripheral quantitative computed tomography-derived cortical bone measures of the tibial diaphysis and biochemical variables in 314 participants (n = 155 males; n = 164 Blacks) in the early stages of puberty. Results: Blacks had greater cortical volumetric bone mineral density, mass, and size compared to Whites (all p < 0.01), contributing to Blacks having 17.0 % greater tibial strength (polar strength-strain index (SSIP)) (p < 0.001). Turnover markers indicated that Blacks had higher bone formation (osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) and lower bone resorption (N-terminal telopeptide) than Whites (all p < 0.01). Blacks also had lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and higher 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (all p < 0.05). There were no correlations between tibial bone properties and 25(OH)D and PTH in Whites (all p ≥ 0.10); however, SSIP was negatively and positively correlated with 25(OH)D and PTH in Blacks, respectively (all p ≤ 0.02). Variation in bone cross-sectional area and SSIP attributable to race was partially explained by tibial length, 25(OH)D/PTH, and OC. Conclusions: Divergence in tibial cortical bone properties between Blacks and Whites is established by the early stages of puberty with the enhanced cortical bone properties in Black children possibly being explained by higher PTH and OC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1869-1879
Number of pages11
JournalOsteoporosis International
Volume24
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2013

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Puberty
Parathyroid Hormone
Osteocalcin
Bone and Bones
Diaphyses
Cortical Bone
hydroquinone
Osteoporotic Fractures
Bone Resorption
Osteogenesis
Bone Density
Alkaline Phosphatase
Cross-Sectional Studies
Tomography
Health
Growth
Serum

Keywords

  • 1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D
  • 25-Hydroxy vitamin D
  • Bone turnover
  • Peripheral quantitative computed tomography
  • PTH
  • Race

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Racial differences in cortical bone and their relationship to biochemical variables in Black and White children in the early stages of puberty. / Warden, S. J.; Hill, K. M.; Ferira, A. J.; Laing, E. M.; Martin, B. R.; Hausman, D. B.; Weaver, C. M.; Peacock, Munro; Lewis, R. D.

In: Osteoporosis International, Vol. 24, No. 6, 06.2013, p. 1869-1879.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Warden, SJ, Hill, KM, Ferira, AJ, Laing, EM, Martin, BR, Hausman, DB, Weaver, CM, Peacock, M & Lewis, RD 2013, 'Racial differences in cortical bone and their relationship to biochemical variables in Black and White children in the early stages of puberty', Osteoporosis International, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1869-1879. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-012-2174-8
Warden, S. J. ; Hill, K. M. ; Ferira, A. J. ; Laing, E. M. ; Martin, B. R. ; Hausman, D. B. ; Weaver, C. M. ; Peacock, Munro ; Lewis, R. D. / Racial differences in cortical bone and their relationship to biochemical variables in Black and White children in the early stages of puberty. In: Osteoporosis International. 2013 ; Vol. 24, No. 6. pp. 1869-1879.
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abstract = "Osteoporotic fracture rates differ according to race with Blacks having up to half the rate of Whites. The current study demonstrates that racial divergence in cortical bone properties develops in early childhood despite lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Blacks. Introduction: Racial differences in bone structure likely have roots in childhood as bone size develops predominantly during growth. This study aimed to compare cortical bone health within the tibial diaphysis of Black and White children in the early stages of puberty and explore the contributions of biochemical variables in explaining racial variation in cortical bone properties. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed comparing peripheral quantitative computed tomography-derived cortical bone measures of the tibial diaphysis and biochemical variables in 314 participants (n = 155 males; n = 164 Blacks) in the early stages of puberty. Results: Blacks had greater cortical volumetric bone mineral density, mass, and size compared to Whites (all p < 0.01), contributing to Blacks having 17.0 {\%} greater tibial strength (polar strength-strain index (SSIP)) (p < 0.001). Turnover markers indicated that Blacks had higher bone formation (osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) and lower bone resorption (N-terminal telopeptide) than Whites (all p < 0.01). Blacks also had lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and higher 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (all p < 0.05). There were no correlations between tibial bone properties and 25(OH)D and PTH in Whites (all p ≥ 0.10); however, SSIP was negatively and positively correlated with 25(OH)D and PTH in Blacks, respectively (all p ≤ 0.02). Variation in bone cross-sectional area and SSIP attributable to race was partially explained by tibial length, 25(OH)D/PTH, and OC. Conclusions: Divergence in tibial cortical bone properties between Blacks and Whites is established by the early stages of puberty with the enhanced cortical bone properties in Black children possibly being explained by higher PTH and OC.",
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AU - Hill, K. M.

AU - Ferira, A. J.

AU - Laing, E. M.

AU - Martin, B. R.

AU - Hausman, D. B.

AU - Weaver, C. M.

AU - Peacock, Munro

AU - Lewis, R. D.

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N2 - Osteoporotic fracture rates differ according to race with Blacks having up to half the rate of Whites. The current study demonstrates that racial divergence in cortical bone properties develops in early childhood despite lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Blacks. Introduction: Racial differences in bone structure likely have roots in childhood as bone size develops predominantly during growth. This study aimed to compare cortical bone health within the tibial diaphysis of Black and White children in the early stages of puberty and explore the contributions of biochemical variables in explaining racial variation in cortical bone properties. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed comparing peripheral quantitative computed tomography-derived cortical bone measures of the tibial diaphysis and biochemical variables in 314 participants (n = 155 males; n = 164 Blacks) in the early stages of puberty. Results: Blacks had greater cortical volumetric bone mineral density, mass, and size compared to Whites (all p < 0.01), contributing to Blacks having 17.0 % greater tibial strength (polar strength-strain index (SSIP)) (p < 0.001). Turnover markers indicated that Blacks had higher bone formation (osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) and lower bone resorption (N-terminal telopeptide) than Whites (all p < 0.01). Blacks also had lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and higher 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (all p < 0.05). There were no correlations between tibial bone properties and 25(OH)D and PTH in Whites (all p ≥ 0.10); however, SSIP was negatively and positively correlated with 25(OH)D and PTH in Blacks, respectively (all p ≤ 0.02). Variation in bone cross-sectional area and SSIP attributable to race was partially explained by tibial length, 25(OH)D/PTH, and OC. Conclusions: Divergence in tibial cortical bone properties between Blacks and Whites is established by the early stages of puberty with the enhanced cortical bone properties in Black children possibly being explained by higher PTH and OC.

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