Racial Differences in the Incidence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Older Black and White Adults

George Howard, Monika M. Safford, Claudia S. Moy, Virginia J. Howard, Dawn O. Kleindorfer, Frederick Unverzagt, Elsayed Z. Soliman, Matthew L. Flaherty, Leslie A. Mcclure, Daniel T. Lackland, Virginia G. Wadley, Leavonne Pulley, Mary Cushman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: To describe the incidence of cardiovascular risk factors, or race-related disparities in incidence, across the age spectrum in adults. Design: Longitudinal cohort. Setting: National sample. Participants: Community-dwelling black and white adults recruited between 2003 and 2007. Measurements: Incident hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and atrial fibrillation over 10 years of follow-up in 10,801 adults, stratified according to age (45-54, 55-64, 65-74, ≥75). Results: There was no evidence (P ≥ .68) of an age-related difference in the incidence of hypertension for white men (average incidence 38%), black men (48%), or black women (54%), although for white women incidence increased with age (45-54, 27%; ≥75, 40%). Incidence of diabetes mellitus was lower at older ages for white men (45-54, 15%; ≥75, 8%), black men (45-54, 29%; ≥75, 13%), and white women (45-54, 11%; ≥75, 4%), although there was no evidence (P = .11) of age-related changes for black women (average incidence 21%). For dyslipidemia, incidence for all race-sex groups was approximately 20% for aged 45 to 54 but approximately 30% for aged 54 to 64 and 65 to 74 and approximately 22% for aged 75 and older. Incidence of atrial fibrillation was low at age 45 to 54 (<5%) but for aged 75 and older was approximately 20% for whites and 11% for blacks. The incidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia was higher in blacks across the age spectrum but lower for atrial fibrillation. Conclusion: Incidence of risk factors remains high in older adults. Blacks have a higher incidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia after age 45, underscoring the ongoing importance of prevention of all three conditions in mid- to later life.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of the American Geriatrics Society
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2016

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Incidence
Dyslipidemias
Diabetes Mellitus
Atrial Fibrillation
Hypertension
hydroquinone
Independent Living

Keywords

  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Epidemiology
  • Hypertension
  • Lipids and cholesterol
  • Longitudinal cohort study
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

Cite this

Racial Differences in the Incidence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Older Black and White Adults. / Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Moy, Claudia S.; Howard, Virginia J.; Kleindorfer, Dawn O.; Unverzagt, Frederick; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Flaherty, Matthew L.; Mcclure, Leslie A.; Lackland, Daniel T.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Pulley, Leavonne; Cushman, Mary.

In: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Howard, G, Safford, MM, Moy, CS, Howard, VJ, Kleindorfer, DO, Unverzagt, F, Soliman, EZ, Flaherty, ML, Mcclure, LA, Lackland, DT, Wadley, VG, Pulley, L & Cushman, M 2016, 'Racial Differences in the Incidence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Older Black and White Adults', Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.14472
Howard, George ; Safford, Monika M. ; Moy, Claudia S. ; Howard, Virginia J. ; Kleindorfer, Dawn O. ; Unverzagt, Frederick ; Soliman, Elsayed Z. ; Flaherty, Matthew L. ; Mcclure, Leslie A. ; Lackland, Daniel T. ; Wadley, Virginia G. ; Pulley, Leavonne ; Cushman, Mary. / Racial Differences in the Incidence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Older Black and White Adults. In: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2016.
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abstract = "Objectives: To describe the incidence of cardiovascular risk factors, or race-related disparities in incidence, across the age spectrum in adults. Design: Longitudinal cohort. Setting: National sample. Participants: Community-dwelling black and white adults recruited between 2003 and 2007. Measurements: Incident hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and atrial fibrillation over 10 years of follow-up in 10,801 adults, stratified according to age (45-54, 55-64, 65-74, ≥75). Results: There was no evidence (P ≥ .68) of an age-related difference in the incidence of hypertension for white men (average incidence 38{\%}), black men (48{\%}), or black women (54{\%}), although for white women incidence increased with age (45-54, 27{\%}; ≥75, 40{\%}). Incidence of diabetes mellitus was lower at older ages for white men (45-54, 15{\%}; ≥75, 8{\%}), black men (45-54, 29{\%}; ≥75, 13{\%}), and white women (45-54, 11{\%}; ≥75, 4{\%}), although there was no evidence (P = .11) of age-related changes for black women (average incidence 21{\%}). For dyslipidemia, incidence for all race-sex groups was approximately 20{\%} for aged 45 to 54 but approximately 30{\%} for aged 54 to 64 and 65 to 74 and approximately 22{\%} for aged 75 and older. Incidence of atrial fibrillation was low at age 45 to 54 (<5{\%}) but for aged 75 and older was approximately 20{\%} for whites and 11{\%} for blacks. The incidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia was higher in blacks across the age spectrum but lower for atrial fibrillation. Conclusion: Incidence of risk factors remains high in older adults. Blacks have a higher incidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia after age 45, underscoring the ongoing importance of prevention of all three conditions in mid- to later life.",
keywords = "Atrial fibrillation, Diabetes mellitus, Epidemiology, Hypertension, Lipids and cholesterol, Longitudinal cohort study, Risk factors",
author = "George Howard and Safford, {Monika M.} and Moy, {Claudia S.} and Howard, {Virginia J.} and Kleindorfer, {Dawn O.} and Frederick Unverzagt and Soliman, {Elsayed Z.} and Flaherty, {Matthew L.} and Mcclure, {Leslie A.} and Lackland, {Daniel T.} and Wadley, {Virginia G.} and Leavonne Pulley and Mary Cushman",
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T1 - Racial Differences in the Incidence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Older Black and White Adults

AU - Howard, George

AU - Safford, Monika M.

AU - Moy, Claudia S.

AU - Howard, Virginia J.

AU - Kleindorfer, Dawn O.

AU - Unverzagt, Frederick

AU - Soliman, Elsayed Z.

AU - Flaherty, Matthew L.

AU - Mcclure, Leslie A.

AU - Lackland, Daniel T.

AU - Wadley, Virginia G.

AU - Pulley, Leavonne

AU - Cushman, Mary

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Objectives: To describe the incidence of cardiovascular risk factors, or race-related disparities in incidence, across the age spectrum in adults. Design: Longitudinal cohort. Setting: National sample. Participants: Community-dwelling black and white adults recruited between 2003 and 2007. Measurements: Incident hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and atrial fibrillation over 10 years of follow-up in 10,801 adults, stratified according to age (45-54, 55-64, 65-74, ≥75). Results: There was no evidence (P ≥ .68) of an age-related difference in the incidence of hypertension for white men (average incidence 38%), black men (48%), or black women (54%), although for white women incidence increased with age (45-54, 27%; ≥75, 40%). Incidence of diabetes mellitus was lower at older ages for white men (45-54, 15%; ≥75, 8%), black men (45-54, 29%; ≥75, 13%), and white women (45-54, 11%; ≥75, 4%), although there was no evidence (P = .11) of age-related changes for black women (average incidence 21%). For dyslipidemia, incidence for all race-sex groups was approximately 20% for aged 45 to 54 but approximately 30% for aged 54 to 64 and 65 to 74 and approximately 22% for aged 75 and older. Incidence of atrial fibrillation was low at age 45 to 54 (<5%) but for aged 75 and older was approximately 20% for whites and 11% for blacks. The incidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia was higher in blacks across the age spectrum but lower for atrial fibrillation. Conclusion: Incidence of risk factors remains high in older adults. Blacks have a higher incidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia after age 45, underscoring the ongoing importance of prevention of all three conditions in mid- to later life.

AB - Objectives: To describe the incidence of cardiovascular risk factors, or race-related disparities in incidence, across the age spectrum in adults. Design: Longitudinal cohort. Setting: National sample. Participants: Community-dwelling black and white adults recruited between 2003 and 2007. Measurements: Incident hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and atrial fibrillation over 10 years of follow-up in 10,801 adults, stratified according to age (45-54, 55-64, 65-74, ≥75). Results: There was no evidence (P ≥ .68) of an age-related difference in the incidence of hypertension for white men (average incidence 38%), black men (48%), or black women (54%), although for white women incidence increased with age (45-54, 27%; ≥75, 40%). Incidence of diabetes mellitus was lower at older ages for white men (45-54, 15%; ≥75, 8%), black men (45-54, 29%; ≥75, 13%), and white women (45-54, 11%; ≥75, 4%), although there was no evidence (P = .11) of age-related changes for black women (average incidence 21%). For dyslipidemia, incidence for all race-sex groups was approximately 20% for aged 45 to 54 but approximately 30% for aged 54 to 64 and 65 to 74 and approximately 22% for aged 75 and older. Incidence of atrial fibrillation was low at age 45 to 54 (<5%) but for aged 75 and older was approximately 20% for whites and 11% for blacks. The incidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia was higher in blacks across the age spectrum but lower for atrial fibrillation. Conclusion: Incidence of risk factors remains high in older adults. Blacks have a higher incidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia after age 45, underscoring the ongoing importance of prevention of all three conditions in mid- to later life.

KW - Atrial fibrillation

KW - Diabetes mellitus

KW - Epidemiology

KW - Hypertension

KW - Lipids and cholesterol

KW - Longitudinal cohort study

KW - Risk factors

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