Radiation-Induced Cerebral Microbleeds in Pediatric Patients With Brain Tumors Treated With Proton Radiation Therapy

Stephen F. Kralik, Todd R. Mereniuk, Laurent Grignon, Chie-Schin Shih, Chang Ho, Whitney Finke, Peter W. Coleman, Gordon A. Watson, Jeffrey C. Buchsbaum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: Proton beam radiation therapy (PBT) has been increasingly used to treat pediatric brain tumors; however, limited information exists regarding radiation-induced cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) among these patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and imaging appearance of CMBs in pediatric patients with brain tumors treated with PBT. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed of 100 pediatric patients with primary brain tumors treated with PBT. CMBs were diagnosed by examination of serial magnetic resonance imaging scans, including susceptibility-weighted imaging. Radiation therapy plans were analyzed to determine doses to individual CMBs. Clinical records were used to determine risk factors associated with the development of CMBs in these patients. Results: The mean age at time of PBT was 8.1 years. The median follow-up duration was 57 months. The median time to development of CMBs was 8 months (mean, 11 months; range, 3-28 months). The percentage of patients with CMBs was 43%, 66%, 80%, 81%, 83%, and 81% at 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, 4 years, 5 years, and >5 years from completion of proton radiation therapy. Most of the CMBs (87%) were found in areas of brain exposed to ≥30 Gy. Risk factors included maximum radiation therapy dose (P =.001), percentage and volume of brain exposed to ≥30 Gy (P =.0004, P =.0005), and patient age at time of PBT (P =.0004). Chemotherapy was not a significant risk factor (P =.35). No CMBs required surgical intervention. Conclusions: CMBs develop in a high percentage of pediatric patients with brain tumors treated with proton radiation therapy within the first few years after treatment. Significant risk factors for development of CMBs include younger age at time of PBT, higher maximum radiation therapy dose, and higher percentage and volume of brain exposed to ≥30 Gy. These findings demonstrate similarities with CMBs that develop in pediatric patients with brain tumor treated with photon radiation therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

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Proton Therapy
Brain Neoplasms
brain
radiation therapy
Radiotherapy
tumors
Radiation
Pediatrics
protons
radiation
proton beams
dosage
Brain
chemotherapy
Photons
magnetic resonance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Radiation-Induced Cerebral Microbleeds in Pediatric Patients With Brain Tumors Treated With Proton Radiation Therapy. / Kralik, Stephen F.; Mereniuk, Todd R.; Grignon, Laurent; Shih, Chie-Schin; Ho, Chang; Finke, Whitney; Coleman, Peter W.; Watson, Gordon A.; Buchsbaum, Jeffrey C.

In: International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kralik, Stephen F. ; Mereniuk, Todd R. ; Grignon, Laurent ; Shih, Chie-Schin ; Ho, Chang ; Finke, Whitney ; Coleman, Peter W. ; Watson, Gordon A. ; Buchsbaum, Jeffrey C. / Radiation-Induced Cerebral Microbleeds in Pediatric Patients With Brain Tumors Treated With Proton Radiation Therapy. In: International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics. 2018.
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abstract = "Purpose: Proton beam radiation therapy (PBT) has been increasingly used to treat pediatric brain tumors; however, limited information exists regarding radiation-induced cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) among these patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and imaging appearance of CMBs in pediatric patients with brain tumors treated with PBT. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed of 100 pediatric patients with primary brain tumors treated with PBT. CMBs were diagnosed by examination of serial magnetic resonance imaging scans, including susceptibility-weighted imaging. Radiation therapy plans were analyzed to determine doses to individual CMBs. Clinical records were used to determine risk factors associated with the development of CMBs in these patients. Results: The mean age at time of PBT was 8.1 years. The median follow-up duration was 57 months. The median time to development of CMBs was 8 months (mean, 11 months; range, 3-28 months). The percentage of patients with CMBs was 43{\%}, 66{\%}, 80{\%}, 81{\%}, 83{\%}, and 81{\%} at 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, 4 years, 5 years, and >5 years from completion of proton radiation therapy. Most of the CMBs (87{\%}) were found in areas of brain exposed to ≥30 Gy. Risk factors included maximum radiation therapy dose (P =.001), percentage and volume of brain exposed to ≥30 Gy (P =.0004, P =.0005), and patient age at time of PBT (P =.0004). Chemotherapy was not a significant risk factor (P =.35). No CMBs required surgical intervention. Conclusions: CMBs develop in a high percentage of pediatric patients with brain tumors treated with proton radiation therapy within the first few years after treatment. Significant risk factors for development of CMBs include younger age at time of PBT, higher maximum radiation therapy dose, and higher percentage and volume of brain exposed to ≥30 Gy. These findings demonstrate similarities with CMBs that develop in pediatric patients with brain tumor treated with photon radiation therapy.",
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AU - Kralik, Stephen F.

AU - Mereniuk, Todd R.

AU - Grignon, Laurent

AU - Shih, Chie-Schin

AU - Ho, Chang

AU - Finke, Whitney

AU - Coleman, Peter W.

AU - Watson, Gordon A.

AU - Buchsbaum, Jeffrey C.

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AB - Purpose: Proton beam radiation therapy (PBT) has been increasingly used to treat pediatric brain tumors; however, limited information exists regarding radiation-induced cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) among these patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and imaging appearance of CMBs in pediatric patients with brain tumors treated with PBT. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed of 100 pediatric patients with primary brain tumors treated with PBT. CMBs were diagnosed by examination of serial magnetic resonance imaging scans, including susceptibility-weighted imaging. Radiation therapy plans were analyzed to determine doses to individual CMBs. Clinical records were used to determine risk factors associated with the development of CMBs in these patients. Results: The mean age at time of PBT was 8.1 years. The median follow-up duration was 57 months. The median time to development of CMBs was 8 months (mean, 11 months; range, 3-28 months). The percentage of patients with CMBs was 43%, 66%, 80%, 81%, 83%, and 81% at 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, 4 years, 5 years, and >5 years from completion of proton radiation therapy. Most of the CMBs (87%) were found in areas of brain exposed to ≥30 Gy. Risk factors included maximum radiation therapy dose (P =.001), percentage and volume of brain exposed to ≥30 Gy (P =.0004, P =.0005), and patient age at time of PBT (P =.0004). Chemotherapy was not a significant risk factor (P =.35). No CMBs required surgical intervention. Conclusions: CMBs develop in a high percentage of pediatric patients with brain tumors treated with proton radiation therapy within the first few years after treatment. Significant risk factors for development of CMBs include younger age at time of PBT, higher maximum radiation therapy dose, and higher percentage and volume of brain exposed to ≥30 Gy. These findings demonstrate similarities with CMBs that develop in pediatric patients with brain tumor treated with photon radiation therapy.

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