Radiation-Induced Large Vessel Cerebral Vasculopathy in Pediatric Patients With Brain Tumors Treated With Proton Radiation therapy

Stephen F. Kralik, Gordon A. Watson, Chie-Schin Shih, Chang Ho, Whitney Finke, Jeffrey Buchsbaum

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Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the incidence, time to development, imaging patterns, risk factors, and clinical significance of large vessel cerebral vasculopathy in pediatric patients with brain tumors treated with proton radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study was performed on 75 consecutive pediatric patients with primary brain tumors treated with proton radiation therapy. Radiation-induced large vessel cerebral vasculopathy (RLVCV) was defined as intracranial large vessel arterial stenosis or occlusion confirmed on magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomographic angiography, catheter angiography, or a combination of these within an anatomic region with previous exposure to proton beam therapy and not present before radiation therapy. Clinical records were used to determine the incidence, timing, radiation dose to the large vessels, and clinical significance associated with the development of large vessel vasculopathy in these patients. Results: RLVCV was present in 5 of 75 (6.7%) patients and included tumor pathologic features of craniopharyngioma (n=2), ATRT (n=1), medulloblastoma (n=1), and anaplastic astrocytoma (n=1). The median time from completion of radiation therapy to development was 1.5 years (mean, 3.0 years; range, 1.0-7.5 years). Neither mean age at the time of radiation therapy (5.1 years) nor mean radiation therapy dose to the large vessels (54.5 Gy) was a statistically significant risk factor. Four of the 5 patients with RLVCV presented with acute stroke and demonstrated magnetic resonance imaging evidence of acute infarcts in the expected vascular distributions. Angiography studies demonstrated collateral vessel formation in only 2 of the patients with RLVCV. No patients demonstrated acute hemorrhage or aneurysm. Two patients were treated with pial synangiomatosis surgery. Conclusions: RLVCV can occur in pediatric patients with brain tumors treated with proton radiation therapy. Further studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors for large vessel vasculopathy with proton radiation therapy in comparison with conventional photon radiation therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2017

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Proton Therapy
Brain Neoplasms
brain
vessels
radiation therapy
Radiotherapy
tumors
Radiation
Pediatrics
protons
radiation
angiography
Angiography
magnetic resonance
Craniopharyngioma
Medulloblastoma
incidence
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Incidence
Astrocytoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

@article{edf5227068fd4163b11330f241c8f1f7,
title = "Radiation-Induced Large Vessel Cerebral Vasculopathy in Pediatric Patients With Brain Tumors Treated With Proton Radiation therapy",
abstract = "Purpose: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the incidence, time to development, imaging patterns, risk factors, and clinical significance of large vessel cerebral vasculopathy in pediatric patients with brain tumors treated with proton radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study was performed on 75 consecutive pediatric patients with primary brain tumors treated with proton radiation therapy. Radiation-induced large vessel cerebral vasculopathy (RLVCV) was defined as intracranial large vessel arterial stenosis or occlusion confirmed on magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomographic angiography, catheter angiography, or a combination of these within an anatomic region with previous exposure to proton beam therapy and not present before radiation therapy. Clinical records were used to determine the incidence, timing, radiation dose to the large vessels, and clinical significance associated with the development of large vessel vasculopathy in these patients. Results: RLVCV was present in 5 of 75 (6.7{\%}) patients and included tumor pathologic features of craniopharyngioma (n=2), ATRT (n=1), medulloblastoma (n=1), and anaplastic astrocytoma (n=1). The median time from completion of radiation therapy to development was 1.5 years (mean, 3.0 years; range, 1.0-7.5 years). Neither mean age at the time of radiation therapy (5.1 years) nor mean radiation therapy dose to the large vessels (54.5 Gy) was a statistically significant risk factor. Four of the 5 patients with RLVCV presented with acute stroke and demonstrated magnetic resonance imaging evidence of acute infarcts in the expected vascular distributions. Angiography studies demonstrated collateral vessel formation in only 2 of the patients with RLVCV. No patients demonstrated acute hemorrhage or aneurysm. Two patients were treated with pial synangiomatosis surgery. Conclusions: RLVCV can occur in pediatric patients with brain tumors treated with proton radiation therapy. Further studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors for large vessel vasculopathy with proton radiation therapy in comparison with conventional photon radiation therapy.",
author = "Kralik, {Stephen F.} and Watson, {Gordon A.} and Chie-Schin Shih and Chang Ho and Whitney Finke and Jeffrey Buchsbaum",
year = "2017",
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T1 - Radiation-Induced Large Vessel Cerebral Vasculopathy in Pediatric Patients With Brain Tumors Treated With Proton Radiation therapy

AU - Kralik, Stephen F.

AU - Watson, Gordon A.

AU - Shih, Chie-Schin

AU - Ho, Chang

AU - Finke, Whitney

AU - Buchsbaum, Jeffrey

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Purpose: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the incidence, time to development, imaging patterns, risk factors, and clinical significance of large vessel cerebral vasculopathy in pediatric patients with brain tumors treated with proton radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study was performed on 75 consecutive pediatric patients with primary brain tumors treated with proton radiation therapy. Radiation-induced large vessel cerebral vasculopathy (RLVCV) was defined as intracranial large vessel arterial stenosis or occlusion confirmed on magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomographic angiography, catheter angiography, or a combination of these within an anatomic region with previous exposure to proton beam therapy and not present before radiation therapy. Clinical records were used to determine the incidence, timing, radiation dose to the large vessels, and clinical significance associated with the development of large vessel vasculopathy in these patients. Results: RLVCV was present in 5 of 75 (6.7%) patients and included tumor pathologic features of craniopharyngioma (n=2), ATRT (n=1), medulloblastoma (n=1), and anaplastic astrocytoma (n=1). The median time from completion of radiation therapy to development was 1.5 years (mean, 3.0 years; range, 1.0-7.5 years). Neither mean age at the time of radiation therapy (5.1 years) nor mean radiation therapy dose to the large vessels (54.5 Gy) was a statistically significant risk factor. Four of the 5 patients with RLVCV presented with acute stroke and demonstrated magnetic resonance imaging evidence of acute infarcts in the expected vascular distributions. Angiography studies demonstrated collateral vessel formation in only 2 of the patients with RLVCV. No patients demonstrated acute hemorrhage or aneurysm. Two patients were treated with pial synangiomatosis surgery. Conclusions: RLVCV can occur in pediatric patients with brain tumors treated with proton radiation therapy. Further studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors for large vessel vasculopathy with proton radiation therapy in comparison with conventional photon radiation therapy.

AB - Purpose: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the incidence, time to development, imaging patterns, risk factors, and clinical significance of large vessel cerebral vasculopathy in pediatric patients with brain tumors treated with proton radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study was performed on 75 consecutive pediatric patients with primary brain tumors treated with proton radiation therapy. Radiation-induced large vessel cerebral vasculopathy (RLVCV) was defined as intracranial large vessel arterial stenosis or occlusion confirmed on magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomographic angiography, catheter angiography, or a combination of these within an anatomic region with previous exposure to proton beam therapy and not present before radiation therapy. Clinical records were used to determine the incidence, timing, radiation dose to the large vessels, and clinical significance associated with the development of large vessel vasculopathy in these patients. Results: RLVCV was present in 5 of 75 (6.7%) patients and included tumor pathologic features of craniopharyngioma (n=2), ATRT (n=1), medulloblastoma (n=1), and anaplastic astrocytoma (n=1). The median time from completion of radiation therapy to development was 1.5 years (mean, 3.0 years; range, 1.0-7.5 years). Neither mean age at the time of radiation therapy (5.1 years) nor mean radiation therapy dose to the large vessels (54.5 Gy) was a statistically significant risk factor. Four of the 5 patients with RLVCV presented with acute stroke and demonstrated magnetic resonance imaging evidence of acute infarcts in the expected vascular distributions. Angiography studies demonstrated collateral vessel formation in only 2 of the patients with RLVCV. No patients demonstrated acute hemorrhage or aneurysm. Two patients were treated with pial synangiomatosis surgery. Conclusions: RLVCV can occur in pediatric patients with brain tumors treated with proton radiation therapy. Further studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors for large vessel vasculopathy with proton radiation therapy in comparison with conventional photon radiation therapy.

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