Recombinant human granulocyte‐colony stimulating factor and recombinant human macrophage colony stimulating factor synergize in vivo to enhance proliferation of granulocyte‐macrophage, erythroid, and multipotential progenitor cells in mice

Hal E. Broxmeyer, Douglas E. Williams, Scott Cooper, Giao Hangoc, Peter Ralph

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15 Scopus citations


Combinations of low dosages of purified recombinant human (rh) macrophage colony stimulating factor (M‐CSF; also termed CSF‐1) and rh granulocyte‐colony stimulating factor (G‐CSF) were compared alone and in combination for their influence on the cycling rates and numbers of bone marrow and splenic granulocyte macrophage, erythroid, and multipotential progenitor cells in vivo in mice pretreated with iron‐saturated human lactoferrin (LF). LF was used to enhance detection of the stimulating effects of exogenously added CSFs. Concentrations of each CSF that were not active in vivo when given alone were active when given together, with the other CSF. The concentrations of rhM‐CSF and rhG‐CSF needed to increase progenitor cell cycling in the marrow and spleen were reduced by factors of 40‐200 when these CSFs were administered in combination with low dosages of the other CSF. At the concentrations of rhM‐CSF and rhG‐CSF tested, synergism was not noted on absolute numbers of progenitor cells or total nucleated cell counts per organ o circulating in the blood. These findings may have potential relevance when considered in a clinical setting where the CSFs might be used in combination with other biotherapy and/or chemotherapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)127-136
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Cellular Biochemistry
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 1988



  • colony stimulating factor
  • erythroid progenitor cell
  • granulocyte‐colony stimulating factor
  • granulocyte‐macrophage progenitor cell
  • hematopoietic progenitor cell
  • in vivo action
  • lactoferrin
  • macrophage‐colony stimulating factor
  • multipotential hematopoietic progenitor cell
  • synergism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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