Routine retroperitoneal lymph node dissection is generally not required after a complete remission is achieved by chemotherapy in initially disseminated nonseminomatous testis cancer. However, in patients with multiple relapses retroperitoneal lymph node dissection should be considered even if the retroperitoneum is unremarkable by radiographic staging. We report on a patient with initial stage III disease in whom a complete clinical response to chemotherapy was achieved multiple times but there was repeatedly re-seeding of the lungs from an undetected focus of nodal cancer later proved by retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Controversies in management as well as potential mechanisms of drug resistance are discussed.
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