We prospectively treated 80 patients with relapse of malignancy or secondary myelodysplasia after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) with allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT) using a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen of fludarabine 150 mg/m2 plus intravenous busulfan 6.4 mg/kg. Both matched sibling (MSD) and unrelated donors (MUD) were allowed. Patients transplanted from MUD donors received more intensive graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, including rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG) 10 mg/kg, mycophenolate mofetil, and an extended schedule of tacrolimus. With a median follow-up of 3.1 years (0.9-5.8), treatment-related mortality (TRM) at 6 months and 2 years was 8% and 23%, respectively. Neither TRM nor the rates of acute GVHD (aGVHD) were different in those with sibling or MUD donors. Donor CD3 cell chimerism >90% at day +30 was achieved more often in patients with MUD than with matched sibling donors, 70% versus 23% (P < .0001). Median event-free suvival was higher in patients who achieved early full donor chimerism (14.2 versus 8 months, P = .0395). Allo-HCT using this reduced-intensity conditioning regimen can be performed with low TRM in patients who have received a prior AHCT. Efforts to improve early donor CD3 chimerism may improve event-free survival.
- Reduced-intensity conditioning
- Second transplant
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