Regulation of circadian blood pressure: From mice to astronauts

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

46 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose of review: Circadian variation is commonly seen in healthy people; aberration in these biological rhythms is an early sign of disease. Impaired circadian variation of blood pressure (BP) has been shown to be associated with greater target organ damage and with an elevated risk of cardiovascular events independent of the BP load. The purpose of this review is to examine the physiology of circadian BP variation and propose a tripartite model that explains the regulation of circadian BP. Recent findings: The time-keeper in mammals resides centrally in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Apart from this central clock, molecular clocks exist in most peripheral tissues including vascular tissue and the kidney. These molecular clocks regulate sodium balance, sympathetic function and vascular tone. A physiological model is proposed that integrates our understanding of molecular clocks in mice with the circadian BP variation among humans. The master regulator in this proposed model is the sleep-activity cycle. The equivalents of peripheral clocks are endothelial and adrenergic functions. Thus, in the proposed model, the variation in circadian BP is dependent upon three major factors: physical activity, autonomic function, and sodium sensitivity. Summary: The integrated consideration of physical activity, autonomic function, and sodium sensitivity appears to explain the physiology of circadian BP variation and the pathophysiology of disrupted BP rhythms in various conditions and disease states. Our understanding of molecular clocks in mice may help to explain the provenance of blunted circadian BP variation even among astronauts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)51-58
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Volume19
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2010

Fingerprint

Astronauts
Blood Pressure
Sodium
Blood Vessels
Exercise
Activity Cycles
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
Periodicity
Adrenergic Agents
Mammals
Sleep
Kidney

Keywords

  • Blood pressure
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Circadian rhythms
  • Cosinor modeling
  • Molecular clocks
  • Pathophysiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Internal Medicine

Cite this

Regulation of circadian blood pressure : From mice to astronauts. / Agarwal, Rajiv.

In: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, Vol. 19, No. 1, 01.01.2010, p. 51-58.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

@article{d56ef893390440ea8a307c3806b24a6c,
title = "Regulation of circadian blood pressure: From mice to astronauts",
abstract = "Purpose of review: Circadian variation is commonly seen in healthy people; aberration in these biological rhythms is an early sign of disease. Impaired circadian variation of blood pressure (BP) has been shown to be associated with greater target organ damage and with an elevated risk of cardiovascular events independent of the BP load. The purpose of this review is to examine the physiology of circadian BP variation and propose a tripartite model that explains the regulation of circadian BP. Recent findings: The time-keeper in mammals resides centrally in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Apart from this central clock, molecular clocks exist in most peripheral tissues including vascular tissue and the kidney. These molecular clocks regulate sodium balance, sympathetic function and vascular tone. A physiological model is proposed that integrates our understanding of molecular clocks in mice with the circadian BP variation among humans. The master regulator in this proposed model is the sleep-activity cycle. The equivalents of peripheral clocks are endothelial and adrenergic functions. Thus, in the proposed model, the variation in circadian BP is dependent upon three major factors: physical activity, autonomic function, and sodium sensitivity. Summary: The integrated consideration of physical activity, autonomic function, and sodium sensitivity appears to explain the physiology of circadian BP variation and the pathophysiology of disrupted BP rhythms in various conditions and disease states. Our understanding of molecular clocks in mice may help to explain the provenance of blunted circadian BP variation even among astronauts.",
keywords = "Blood pressure, Chronic kidney disease, Circadian rhythms, Cosinor modeling, Molecular clocks, Pathophysiology",
author = "Rajiv Agarwal",
year = "2010",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1097/MNH.0b013e3283336ddb",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "19",
pages = "51--58",
journal = "Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension",
issn = "1062-4821",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Regulation of circadian blood pressure

T2 - From mice to astronauts

AU - Agarwal, Rajiv

PY - 2010/1/1

Y1 - 2010/1/1

N2 - Purpose of review: Circadian variation is commonly seen in healthy people; aberration in these biological rhythms is an early sign of disease. Impaired circadian variation of blood pressure (BP) has been shown to be associated with greater target organ damage and with an elevated risk of cardiovascular events independent of the BP load. The purpose of this review is to examine the physiology of circadian BP variation and propose a tripartite model that explains the regulation of circadian BP. Recent findings: The time-keeper in mammals resides centrally in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Apart from this central clock, molecular clocks exist in most peripheral tissues including vascular tissue and the kidney. These molecular clocks regulate sodium balance, sympathetic function and vascular tone. A physiological model is proposed that integrates our understanding of molecular clocks in mice with the circadian BP variation among humans. The master regulator in this proposed model is the sleep-activity cycle. The equivalents of peripheral clocks are endothelial and adrenergic functions. Thus, in the proposed model, the variation in circadian BP is dependent upon three major factors: physical activity, autonomic function, and sodium sensitivity. Summary: The integrated consideration of physical activity, autonomic function, and sodium sensitivity appears to explain the physiology of circadian BP variation and the pathophysiology of disrupted BP rhythms in various conditions and disease states. Our understanding of molecular clocks in mice may help to explain the provenance of blunted circadian BP variation even among astronauts.

AB - Purpose of review: Circadian variation is commonly seen in healthy people; aberration in these biological rhythms is an early sign of disease. Impaired circadian variation of blood pressure (BP) has been shown to be associated with greater target organ damage and with an elevated risk of cardiovascular events independent of the BP load. The purpose of this review is to examine the physiology of circadian BP variation and propose a tripartite model that explains the regulation of circadian BP. Recent findings: The time-keeper in mammals resides centrally in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Apart from this central clock, molecular clocks exist in most peripheral tissues including vascular tissue and the kidney. These molecular clocks regulate sodium balance, sympathetic function and vascular tone. A physiological model is proposed that integrates our understanding of molecular clocks in mice with the circadian BP variation among humans. The master regulator in this proposed model is the sleep-activity cycle. The equivalents of peripheral clocks are endothelial and adrenergic functions. Thus, in the proposed model, the variation in circadian BP is dependent upon three major factors: physical activity, autonomic function, and sodium sensitivity. Summary: The integrated consideration of physical activity, autonomic function, and sodium sensitivity appears to explain the physiology of circadian BP variation and the pathophysiology of disrupted BP rhythms in various conditions and disease states. Our understanding of molecular clocks in mice may help to explain the provenance of blunted circadian BP variation even among astronauts.

KW - Blood pressure

KW - Chronic kidney disease

KW - Circadian rhythms

KW - Cosinor modeling

KW - Molecular clocks

KW - Pathophysiology

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=73849099473&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=73849099473&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/MNH.0b013e3283336ddb

DO - 10.1097/MNH.0b013e3283336ddb

M3 - Review article

C2 - 19864947

AN - SCOPUS:73849099473

VL - 19

SP - 51

EP - 58

JO - Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension

JF - Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension

SN - 1062-4821

IS - 1

ER -