Objectives. This review was undertaken to determine the clinical significanceof renal cell carcinoma in the populations undergoing renal transplantation and those undergoing chronic dialysis. Methods. We reviewed all medical records of patients with renal cell carcinoma treated at our institutions over the last 10 years. From this review we identified 20 patients with end-stage renal disease and renal cell carcinoma. Patients' charts were reviewed to determine presenting features, tumor histologic type, and clinical outcome. Results. Seven patients had functioning renal transplants and 13 patients were onchronic maintenance hemodialysis. Ninety-two percent of the dialysis group had no metastatic disease and there were no deaths from renal cancer. In contrast, 53% of the transplant group did have metastatic disease and 2 patients died of renal cancer. Despite similar pathologic appearances of the tumors in these 2 groups, patients with renal cell carcinoma and renal transplant presented with higher-stage disease and had less favorable clinical courses. Conclusions. Considering the morbidity of hemodialysis as well as the other comorbiditiesof this patient population, the clinical significance of renal cell carcinoma in patients undergoing chronic dialysis must be questioned. In contrast, renal cancer in the transplant population behaves aggressively and warrants careful attention both before and after renal transplantation.
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