The combined clinical and molecular heterogeneity of prostate cancer necessitates the use of prognostic, predictive, and diagnostic biomarkers to assist the clinician with treatment selection. The pathologist plays a critical role in guiding molecular biomarker testing in prostate cancer and requires a thorough knowledge of the current testing options. In the setting of clinically localized prostate cancer, prognostic biomarkers such as Ki-67 labeling, PTEN loss or mRNA-based genomic signatures can be useful to help determine whether definitive therapy is required. In the setting of advanced disease, predictive biomarkers, such as the presence of DNA repair deficiency mediated by BRCA2 loss or mismatch repair gene defects, may suggest the utility of poly-ADP ribosylase inhibition or immune checkpoint blockade. Finally, androgen receptor-related biomarkers or diagnostic biomarkers indicating the presence of small cell neuroendocrine prostate cancer may help guide the use of androgen receptor signaling inhibitors and chemotherapy. In this review, we examine the current evidence for several prognostic, predictive and diagnostic tissue-based molecular biomarkers in prostate cancer management. For each assay, we summarize a recent survey of the International Society of Urology Pathology (ISUP) members on current testing practices and include recommendations for testing that emerged from the ISUP Working Group on Molecular Pathology of Prostate Cancer and the 2019 Consultation Conference on Molecular Pathology of Urogenital Cancers.
- homologous recombination
- mismatch repair
- prostate cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine