Representativeness of European clinical trial populations in mild Alzheimer's disease dementia: A comparison of 18-month outcomes with real-world data from the GERAS observational study

Catherine Reed, Mark Belger, Grazia Dell'Agnello, Kristin Kahle-Wrobleski, Gopalan Sethuraman, Ann Hake, Joel Raskin, David Henley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Comparison of disease progression between placebo-group patients from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and real-world patients can aid in assessing the generalisability of RCT outcomes. This analysis compared outcomes between community-dwelling patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia from two RCTs (pooled European (EU) data from EXPEDITION and EXPEDITION 2) and similar patients from the EU GERAS observational study. Methods: Data from placebo-group patients with mild AD dementia from the RCTs (EU countries only) were compared with data from GERAS patients with mild AD dementia. Between-group differences for changes over 18 months were analysed for cognition, functioning, neuropsychiatric symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and caregiver time using propensity score-adjusted models. A sensitivity analysis compared EU/North American (EU/NA) EXPEDITION patients with GERAS patients. Results: EU EXPEDITION patients (n = 168) were younger than GERAS patients (n = 566) (mean (standard deviation, SD) age 71.9 (7.4) versus 77.3 (6.9) years; p < 0.001) and were more likely to use AD treatment (95% versus 84%; p < 0.001). Cognitive performance was similar at baseline in both populations, although GERAS patients showed greater functional impairment (p = 0.005) and lower HRQoL (p < 0.05). At 18 months, no statistically significant differences between EXPEDITION (n = 133) and GERAS (n = 417) patients were observed for changes in cognitive, functional, neuropsychiatric and HRQoL outcomes. Least squares mean (95% confidence interval) change in caregiver time (hours/month) spent on instrumental activities of daily living (iADL; 29.22 (19.16, 39.27) versus 3.20 (-11.89, 18.28), p = 0.001) and supervision (66.59 (47.49, 85.69) versus 3.04 (-25.39, 31.48), p < 0.001) showed greater increases in GERAS than EXPEDITION. In the sensitivity analysis, changes in neuropsychiatric and HRQoL scores and caregiver time spent on basic ADL were also significantly greater in GERAS than in EU/NA EXPEDITION patients. Conclusions: Patients with mild AD dementia participating in the EU EXPEDITION RCTs and the GERAS observational study showed a similar decline in cognitive, functional and neuropsychiatric symptoms over 18 months, whereas changes in caregiver time measures were significantly greater in GERAS. Results indicate the importance of using similar regions when comparing real-world and RCT data. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00905372 EXPEDITION. Registered 18 May 2009. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00904683 EXPEDITION 2. Registered 18 May 2009.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number36
JournalAlzheimer's Research and Therapy
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 3 2018

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Observational Studies
Alzheimer Disease
Clinical Trials
Population
Randomized Controlled Trials
Caregivers
Quality of Life
Activities of Daily Living
Placebos
Independent Living
Propensity Score
Least-Squares Analysis
Cognition
Disease Progression
Confidence Intervals

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Observational studies
  • Randomised controlled trials
  • Real-world data
  • Regional differences

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience

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Representativeness of European clinical trial populations in mild Alzheimer's disease dementia : A comparison of 18-month outcomes with real-world data from the GERAS observational study. / Reed, Catherine; Belger, Mark; Dell'Agnello, Grazia; Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin; Sethuraman, Gopalan; Hake, Ann; Raskin, Joel; Henley, David.

In: Alzheimer's Research and Therapy, Vol. 10, No. 1, 36, 03.04.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Reed, Catherine ; Belger, Mark ; Dell'Agnello, Grazia ; Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin ; Sethuraman, Gopalan ; Hake, Ann ; Raskin, Joel ; Henley, David. / Representativeness of European clinical trial populations in mild Alzheimer's disease dementia : A comparison of 18-month outcomes with real-world data from the GERAS observational study. In: Alzheimer's Research and Therapy. 2018 ; Vol. 10, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: Comparison of disease progression between placebo-group patients from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and real-world patients can aid in assessing the generalisability of RCT outcomes. This analysis compared outcomes between community-dwelling patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia from two RCTs (pooled European (EU) data from EXPEDITION and EXPEDITION 2) and similar patients from the EU GERAS observational study. Methods: Data from placebo-group patients with mild AD dementia from the RCTs (EU countries only) were compared with data from GERAS patients with mild AD dementia. Between-group differences for changes over 18 months were analysed for cognition, functioning, neuropsychiatric symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and caregiver time using propensity score-adjusted models. A sensitivity analysis compared EU/North American (EU/NA) EXPEDITION patients with GERAS patients. Results: EU EXPEDITION patients (n = 168) were younger than GERAS patients (n = 566) (mean (standard deviation, SD) age 71.9 (7.4) versus 77.3 (6.9) years; p < 0.001) and were more likely to use AD treatment (95{\%} versus 84{\%}; p < 0.001). Cognitive performance was similar at baseline in both populations, although GERAS patients showed greater functional impairment (p = 0.005) and lower HRQoL (p < 0.05). At 18 months, no statistically significant differences between EXPEDITION (n = 133) and GERAS (n = 417) patients were observed for changes in cognitive, functional, neuropsychiatric and HRQoL outcomes. Least squares mean (95{\%} confidence interval) change in caregiver time (hours/month) spent on instrumental activities of daily living (iADL; 29.22 (19.16, 39.27) versus 3.20 (-11.89, 18.28), p = 0.001) and supervision (66.59 (47.49, 85.69) versus 3.04 (-25.39, 31.48), p < 0.001) showed greater increases in GERAS than EXPEDITION. In the sensitivity analysis, changes in neuropsychiatric and HRQoL scores and caregiver time spent on basic ADL were also significantly greater in GERAS than in EU/NA EXPEDITION patients. Conclusions: Patients with mild AD dementia participating in the EU EXPEDITION RCTs and the GERAS observational study showed a similar decline in cognitive, functional and neuropsychiatric symptoms over 18 months, whereas changes in caregiver time measures were significantly greater in GERAS. Results indicate the importance of using similar regions when comparing real-world and RCT data. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00905372 EXPEDITION. Registered 18 May 2009. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00904683 EXPEDITION 2. Registered 18 May 2009.",
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T1 - Representativeness of European clinical trial populations in mild Alzheimer's disease dementia

T2 - A comparison of 18-month outcomes with real-world data from the GERAS observational study

AU - Reed, Catherine

AU - Belger, Mark

AU - Dell'Agnello, Grazia

AU - Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin

AU - Sethuraman, Gopalan

AU - Hake, Ann

AU - Raskin, Joel

AU - Henley, David

PY - 2018/4/3

Y1 - 2018/4/3

N2 - Background: Comparison of disease progression between placebo-group patients from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and real-world patients can aid in assessing the generalisability of RCT outcomes. This analysis compared outcomes between community-dwelling patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia from two RCTs (pooled European (EU) data from EXPEDITION and EXPEDITION 2) and similar patients from the EU GERAS observational study. Methods: Data from placebo-group patients with mild AD dementia from the RCTs (EU countries only) were compared with data from GERAS patients with mild AD dementia. Between-group differences for changes over 18 months were analysed for cognition, functioning, neuropsychiatric symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and caregiver time using propensity score-adjusted models. A sensitivity analysis compared EU/North American (EU/NA) EXPEDITION patients with GERAS patients. Results: EU EXPEDITION patients (n = 168) were younger than GERAS patients (n = 566) (mean (standard deviation, SD) age 71.9 (7.4) versus 77.3 (6.9) years; p < 0.001) and were more likely to use AD treatment (95% versus 84%; p < 0.001). Cognitive performance was similar at baseline in both populations, although GERAS patients showed greater functional impairment (p = 0.005) and lower HRQoL (p < 0.05). At 18 months, no statistically significant differences between EXPEDITION (n = 133) and GERAS (n = 417) patients were observed for changes in cognitive, functional, neuropsychiatric and HRQoL outcomes. Least squares mean (95% confidence interval) change in caregiver time (hours/month) spent on instrumental activities of daily living (iADL; 29.22 (19.16, 39.27) versus 3.20 (-11.89, 18.28), p = 0.001) and supervision (66.59 (47.49, 85.69) versus 3.04 (-25.39, 31.48), p < 0.001) showed greater increases in GERAS than EXPEDITION. In the sensitivity analysis, changes in neuropsychiatric and HRQoL scores and caregiver time spent on basic ADL were also significantly greater in GERAS than in EU/NA EXPEDITION patients. Conclusions: Patients with mild AD dementia participating in the EU EXPEDITION RCTs and the GERAS observational study showed a similar decline in cognitive, functional and neuropsychiatric symptoms over 18 months, whereas changes in caregiver time measures were significantly greater in GERAS. Results indicate the importance of using similar regions when comparing real-world and RCT data. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00905372 EXPEDITION. Registered 18 May 2009. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00904683 EXPEDITION 2. Registered 18 May 2009.

AB - Background: Comparison of disease progression between placebo-group patients from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and real-world patients can aid in assessing the generalisability of RCT outcomes. This analysis compared outcomes between community-dwelling patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia from two RCTs (pooled European (EU) data from EXPEDITION and EXPEDITION 2) and similar patients from the EU GERAS observational study. Methods: Data from placebo-group patients with mild AD dementia from the RCTs (EU countries only) were compared with data from GERAS patients with mild AD dementia. Between-group differences for changes over 18 months were analysed for cognition, functioning, neuropsychiatric symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and caregiver time using propensity score-adjusted models. A sensitivity analysis compared EU/North American (EU/NA) EXPEDITION patients with GERAS patients. Results: EU EXPEDITION patients (n = 168) were younger than GERAS patients (n = 566) (mean (standard deviation, SD) age 71.9 (7.4) versus 77.3 (6.9) years; p < 0.001) and were more likely to use AD treatment (95% versus 84%; p < 0.001). Cognitive performance was similar at baseline in both populations, although GERAS patients showed greater functional impairment (p = 0.005) and lower HRQoL (p < 0.05). At 18 months, no statistically significant differences between EXPEDITION (n = 133) and GERAS (n = 417) patients were observed for changes in cognitive, functional, neuropsychiatric and HRQoL outcomes. Least squares mean (95% confidence interval) change in caregiver time (hours/month) spent on instrumental activities of daily living (iADL; 29.22 (19.16, 39.27) versus 3.20 (-11.89, 18.28), p = 0.001) and supervision (66.59 (47.49, 85.69) versus 3.04 (-25.39, 31.48), p < 0.001) showed greater increases in GERAS than EXPEDITION. In the sensitivity analysis, changes in neuropsychiatric and HRQoL scores and caregiver time spent on basic ADL were also significantly greater in GERAS than in EU/NA EXPEDITION patients. Conclusions: Patients with mild AD dementia participating in the EU EXPEDITION RCTs and the GERAS observational study showed a similar decline in cognitive, functional and neuropsychiatric symptoms over 18 months, whereas changes in caregiver time measures were significantly greater in GERAS. Results indicate the importance of using similar regions when comparing real-world and RCT data. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00905372 EXPEDITION. Registered 18 May 2009. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00904683 EXPEDITION 2. Registered 18 May 2009.

KW - Alzheimer's disease

KW - Observational studies

KW - Randomised controlled trials

KW - Real-world data

KW - Regional differences

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