Residential proximity to major roadways and prevalent hypertension among postmenopausal women: Results from the women's health initiative San Diego cohort

Kipruto Kirwa, Melissa N. Eliot, ​Yi  ​Wang, Marc A. Adams, Cindy G. Morgan, Jacqueline Kerr, Gregory J. Norman, Charles B. Eaton, Matthew A. Allison, Gregory A. Wellenius

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background-Living near major roadways has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular events and worse prognosis. Residential proximity to major roadways may also be associated with increased risk of hypertension, but few studies have evaluated this hypothesis. Methods and Results-We examined the cross-sectional association between residential proximity to major roadways and prevalent hypertension among 5401 postmenopausal women enrolled into the San Diego cohort of the Women's Health Initiative. We used modified Poisson regression with robust error variance to estimate the association between prevalence of hypertension and residential distance to nearest major roadway, adjusting for participant demographics, medical history, indicators of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status, and for local supermarket/grocery and fast food/convenience store density. The adjusted prevalence ratios for hypertension were 1.22 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.39), 1.13 (1.00, 1.27), and 1.05 (0.99, 1.12) for women living ≤100, >100 to 200, and >200 to 1000 versus >1000 m from a major roadway (P for trend=0.006). In a model treating the natural log of distance to major roadway as a continuous variable, a shift in distance from 1000 to 100 m from a major roadway was associated with a 9% (3%, 16%) higher prevalence of hypertension. Conclusions-In this cohort of postmenopausal women, residential proximity to major roadways was positively associated with the prevalence of hypertension. If causal, these results suggest that living close to major roadways may be an important novel risk factor for hypertension.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere000727
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Volume3
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014
Externally publishedYes

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Women's Health
Hypertension
Fast Foods
Social Class
Demography

Keywords

  • Environment
  • Hypertension
  • Traffic pollution
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Residential proximity to major roadways and prevalent hypertension among postmenopausal women : Results from the women's health initiative San Diego cohort. / Kirwa, Kipruto; Eliot, Melissa N.; ​Wang, ​Yi ; Adams, Marc A.; Morgan, Cindy G.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Norman, Gregory J.; Eaton, Charles B.; Allison, Matthew A.; Wellenius, Gregory A.

In: Journal of the American Heart Association, Vol. 3, No. 5, e000727, 01.01.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kirwa, K, Eliot, MN, ​Wang, Y, Adams, MA, Morgan, CG, Kerr, J, Norman, GJ, Eaton, CB, Allison, MA & Wellenius, GA 2014, 'Residential proximity to major roadways and prevalent hypertension among postmenopausal women: Results from the women's health initiative San Diego cohort', Journal of the American Heart Association, vol. 3, no. 5, e000727.
Kirwa, Kipruto ; Eliot, Melissa N. ; ​Wang, ​Yi  ; Adams, Marc A. ; Morgan, Cindy G. ; Kerr, Jacqueline ; Norman, Gregory J. ; Eaton, Charles B. ; Allison, Matthew A. ; Wellenius, Gregory A. / Residential proximity to major roadways and prevalent hypertension among postmenopausal women : Results from the women's health initiative San Diego cohort. In: Journal of the American Heart Association. 2014 ; Vol. 3, No. 5.
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abstract = "Background-Living near major roadways has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular events and worse prognosis. Residential proximity to major roadways may also be associated with increased risk of hypertension, but few studies have evaluated this hypothesis. Methods and Results-We examined the cross-sectional association between residential proximity to major roadways and prevalent hypertension among 5401 postmenopausal women enrolled into the San Diego cohort of the Women's Health Initiative. We used modified Poisson regression with robust error variance to estimate the association between prevalence of hypertension and residential distance to nearest major roadway, adjusting for participant demographics, medical history, indicators of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status, and for local supermarket/grocery and fast food/convenience store density. The adjusted prevalence ratios for hypertension were 1.22 (95{\%} CI: 1.07, 1.39), 1.13 (1.00, 1.27), and 1.05 (0.99, 1.12) for women living ≤100, >100 to 200, and >200 to 1000 versus >1000 m from a major roadway (P for trend=0.006). In a model treating the natural log of distance to major roadway as a continuous variable, a shift in distance from 1000 to 100 m from a major roadway was associated with a 9{\%} (3{\%}, 16{\%}) higher prevalence of hypertension. Conclusions-In this cohort of postmenopausal women, residential proximity to major roadways was positively associated with the prevalence of hypertension. If causal, these results suggest that living close to major roadways may be an important novel risk factor for hypertension.",
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