Response of gut hormones after implantation of a reversible gastric restrictive device in different animal models

Xiaomei Guo, Samer G. Mattar, Jose A. Navia, Ghassan S. Kassab

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Variable responses of gut hormones have been observed after bariatric procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and leptin levels in nonobese canine and obese rat models after weight loss owing to a reversible gastric restriction (RGR) device. Methods: Mongrel dogs and obese Zucker rats were submitted to either surgical implantation or a sham operation and were followed up for 6 wk. The serum fasting ghrelin, GLP-1, and leptin levels in dogs were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after surgical implantation and after implant removal. The protein expression of mucosa ghrelin, GLP-1, and leptin in the dog and rat stomach were measured using Western blotting. Results: The RGR implant in dogs and rats resulted in a significant decrease in food intake and body weight. In the nonobese dog, the serum ghrelin level and mucosa ghrelin expression were significantly increased after surgical implantation (P < 0.05) and tended to recover after implant removal. In the obese rat, mucosa ghrelin expression decreased by about 27% (P = 0.06) 6 wk after implantation. A lower serum leptin level in dogs and lower mucosa leptin expression in dogs and rats was observed after surgical implantation compared with the sham procedure (P < 0.05). The RGR implant had no influence on the serum GLP-1 level in dogs or mucosa GLP-1 expression in either animal model. Conclusions: Our results showed that ghrelin levels are downregulated with short-term RGR implantation in obese rats but upregulated in nonobese dogs, implying that the energy balance could be an important determinant of ghrelin level. The marked suppression of leptin in both animal models might contribute to the weight-reducing effect of the RGR implant.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)165-171
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
Volume178
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2012

Fingerprint

Ghrelin
Stomach
Animal Models
Hormones
Dogs
Leptin
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
Equipment and Supplies
Mucous Membrane
Serum
Bariatrics
Zucker Rats
Canidae
Weight Loss
Fasting
Down-Regulation
Eating
Western Blotting
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Body Weight

Keywords

  • Ghrelin
  • Glucagon-like peptide 1
  • Leptin
  • Obesity
  • Weight loss

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Cite this

Response of gut hormones after implantation of a reversible gastric restrictive device in different animal models. / Guo, Xiaomei; Mattar, Samer G.; Navia, Jose A.; Kassab, Ghassan S.

In: Journal of Surgical Research, Vol. 178, No. 1, 11.2012, p. 165-171.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Guo, Xiaomei ; Mattar, Samer G. ; Navia, Jose A. ; Kassab, Ghassan S. / Response of gut hormones after implantation of a reversible gastric restrictive device in different animal models. In: Journal of Surgical Research. 2012 ; Vol. 178, No. 1. pp. 165-171.
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abstract = "Background: Variable responses of gut hormones have been observed after bariatric procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and leptin levels in nonobese canine and obese rat models after weight loss owing to a reversible gastric restriction (RGR) device. Methods: Mongrel dogs and obese Zucker rats were submitted to either surgical implantation or a sham operation and were followed up for 6 wk. The serum fasting ghrelin, GLP-1, and leptin levels in dogs were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after surgical implantation and after implant removal. The protein expression of mucosa ghrelin, GLP-1, and leptin in the dog and rat stomach were measured using Western blotting. Results: The RGR implant in dogs and rats resulted in a significant decrease in food intake and body weight. In the nonobese dog, the serum ghrelin level and mucosa ghrelin expression were significantly increased after surgical implantation (P < 0.05) and tended to recover after implant removal. In the obese rat, mucosa ghrelin expression decreased by about 27{\%} (P = 0.06) 6 wk after implantation. A lower serum leptin level in dogs and lower mucosa leptin expression in dogs and rats was observed after surgical implantation compared with the sham procedure (P < 0.05). The RGR implant had no influence on the serum GLP-1 level in dogs or mucosa GLP-1 expression in either animal model. Conclusions: Our results showed that ghrelin levels are downregulated with short-term RGR implantation in obese rats but upregulated in nonobese dogs, implying that the energy balance could be an important determinant of ghrelin level. The marked suppression of leptin in both animal models might contribute to the weight-reducing effect of the RGR implant.",
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AB - Background: Variable responses of gut hormones have been observed after bariatric procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and leptin levels in nonobese canine and obese rat models after weight loss owing to a reversible gastric restriction (RGR) device. Methods: Mongrel dogs and obese Zucker rats were submitted to either surgical implantation or a sham operation and were followed up for 6 wk. The serum fasting ghrelin, GLP-1, and leptin levels in dogs were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after surgical implantation and after implant removal. The protein expression of mucosa ghrelin, GLP-1, and leptin in the dog and rat stomach were measured using Western blotting. Results: The RGR implant in dogs and rats resulted in a significant decrease in food intake and body weight. In the nonobese dog, the serum ghrelin level and mucosa ghrelin expression were significantly increased after surgical implantation (P < 0.05) and tended to recover after implant removal. In the obese rat, mucosa ghrelin expression decreased by about 27% (P = 0.06) 6 wk after implantation. A lower serum leptin level in dogs and lower mucosa leptin expression in dogs and rats was observed after surgical implantation compared with the sham procedure (P < 0.05). The RGR implant had no influence on the serum GLP-1 level in dogs or mucosa GLP-1 expression in either animal model. Conclusions: Our results showed that ghrelin levels are downregulated with short-term RGR implantation in obese rats but upregulated in nonobese dogs, implying that the energy balance could be an important determinant of ghrelin level. The marked suppression of leptin in both animal models might contribute to the weight-reducing effect of the RGR implant.

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