Retention and adherence: Global challenges for the long-term care of adolescents and young adults living with HIV

Leslie A. Enane, Rachel Vreeman, Caroline Foster

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

23 Scopus citations


Purpose of review Adolescents living with HIV are the only age group with increasing HIV mortality at a time of global scale-up of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). As a 'treat all' strategy is implemented worldwide, it is critically important to optimize retention and adherence for this vulnerable group. Recent findings Adolescents and young adults living with HIV have poorer outcomes when compared with adults at each stage of the HIV care cascade, irrespective of income setting. Rates of viral suppression are lowest for adolescents living with HIV, and adherence to ART remains an enormous challenge. High-quality studies of interventions to improve linkage to, and retention in, care on suppressive ART are starkly lacking for adolescents and young adults living with HIV across the globe. However, examples of good practice are beginning to emerge but require large-scale implementation studies with outcome data disaggregated by age, route of infection, and income setting, and include young pregnant women and key populations groups. Summary There is an urgent need for evidence-based interventions addressing gaps in the adolescent HIV care cascade, including supporting retention in care and adherence to ART.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)212-219
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2018


  • adherence
  • adolescents
  • antiretroviral therapy
  • HIV
  • retention
  • young adults

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Oncology(nursing)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

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