With long-term survival in excess of 90% across all stages, testicular cancer has come to represent the model for successful multidisciplinary cancer care. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) remains an integral component of testis cancer management strategies for both early- and advanced-stage disease. Commensurate with improvements made in clinical staging and in our understanding of the natural history of testis cancer, lymphatic spread, and neuroanatomy, considerable modifications in the technique and template of RPLND have taken place. The morbidity of primary RPLND and postchemotherapy RPLND is low when performed by experienced surgeons. This article reviews the evolution, role, and technique of RPLND in contemporary practice.
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