Although pediatric urologists can successfully reconstruct even the most severe forms of atypical external male genitalia, and the cosmetic and functional results can be quite good, many of these patients will require multiple operations  and a significant percentage  will develop complications secondary to the operation(s). Although upon first glance, creating more typical male genitalia in boys who were born with atypical genitalia seems like a noble idea, studies are lacking regarding longterm outcome and quality of life. Long-term studies are needed to better assess surgical outcome, as well as the long-term results of nonoperative intervention - data of which are clearly lacking in the study of DSD patients, especially those reared male with ambiguous external genitalia. The best approach going forward would be further research utilizing networks of DSD teams where all stakeholders, including advocacy groups, are included in the research process.
- congenital adrenal hyperplasia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical