Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury During High-dose Chemotherapy and Outcomes for Patients With Relapsed Germ Cell Tumors

Kevin Juan Zhang, Nasser H. Hanna, Sandra K. Althouse, Mohammad Abu Zaid, Rafat Abonour, Costantine Albany, Lawrence H. Einhorn, Nabil Adra

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debate


Background: Patients with relapsed germ cell tumors (GCTs) can be cured with salvage chemotherapy. We evaluated the risk factors and outcomes of patients who had developed acute kidney injury (AKI) during high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) for relapsed GCT. Patients and Methods: All patients were scheduled to receive 2 consecutive courses of HDCT per our standard protocol. The characteristics and outcomes of the patients with stage ≥ 3 AKI were analyzed and compared with those without stage ≥ 3 AKI. Results: Of 462 patients, 21 (4.5%) developed stage ≥ 3 AKI. Of these 21 patients, 18 had required hemodialysis during HDCT and 6 had died during HDCT. Of the 15 patients who had survived HDCT, 10 experienced recovery of renal function to baseline. AKI had occurred in the first cycle of HDCT in 18 patients. These patients were also more likely to have received HDCT in a third-line setting or further, to have Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1 or 2, and to have experienced gastrointestinal, hepatic, pulmonary, and infectious grade ≥ 3 toxicities. At a median follow-up of 10 months after HDCT, 4 patients had no evidence of disease, 3 were alive with disease, 6 had died of disease, 7 had died of complications from HDCT, and 1 had been lost to follow-up. Conclusions: Irreversible AKI during HDCT for relapsed GCT is uncommon but is associated with greater rates of infectious, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and pulmonary complications and treatment-related death. These patients were also more heavily pretreated and had a lower baseline performance status. However, most surviving patients had recovered their renal function and 5 of 21 were alive with no evidence of disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalClinical Genitourinary Cancer
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2020


  • Genitourinary cancer
  • Metastatic
  • Prognosis
  • Survival
  • Testicular cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology

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