Sites phosphorylated by casein kinase I have been characterized by the presence of acidic amino acids NH2-terminal to the modified residue. Recently, phosphoserine was shown to be a particularly effective determinant for casein kinase I action when present in the motif -S(P)-X-X-S- (Flotow, H., Graves, P. R., Wang, A., Fiol, C. J., Roeske, R. W., and Roach, P. J. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 14264-14269). Nonetheless, nonphosphorylated substrates for casein kinase I are well documented. In this study, we examined the efficacy of Asp and Glu residues as determinants of casein kinase I action using synthetic peptide substrates. Peptides with runs of Asp residues in the motif Dn-X-X-S- were substrates for casein kinase I. Peptides with n = 3 or 4 were the most effective substrates, much better than n = 2. The peptide with n = 1, a single Asp residue, was a very poor substrate. A block of 4 Glu residues was a little less effective as a substrate determinant than 4 Asp residues in an otherwise identical peptide. The most effective substrate, with the motif -D-D-D-D-X-X-S-, was specific for casein kinase I and was not detectably phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, casein kinase II, glycogen synthase kinase 3, or phosphorylase kinase and thus will be useful for the specific assay of casein kinase I. This peptide was nonetheless significantly worse as a substrate than peptides in which casein kinase I action was determined by phosphoserine in the -3 position. Still, the fact that Asp or Glu residues can specify a casein kinase I substrate suggests that acidic character has a role in substrate selection by this protein kinase.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||4|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - 1991|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology