Role of BNIP3 and NIX in cell death, autophagy, and mitophagy

J. Zhang, P. A. Ney

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

423 Scopus citations


BNIP3 and NIX are proteins related to the BH3-only family, which induce both cell death and autophagy. Consistent with their ability to induce cell death, BNIP3 and NIX are implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer and heart disease. In tumor cells, BNIP3 and NIX are regulated by hypoxia, and the deregulation of BNIP3 or NIX expression is associated with tumor growth. In heart muscle, BNIP3 and NIX are regulated by hypoxia and Gαq-dependent signaling, respectively, and their expression is associated with decreased myocardial function. Apart from their role in cell death, BNIP3 and NIX are also implicated in the induction of autophagy. In erythroid cells, NIX is required for a specialized type of autophagy that targets mitochondria for elimination (mitophagy). Similarly, BNIP3 regulates mitophagy in response to hypoxia. In this review, we will discuss possible mechanisms by which BNIP3 and NIX induce cell death and mitophagy. We will also consider the potential relationship between cell death pathways and autophagy in development and homeostasis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)939-946
Number of pages8
JournalCell Death and Differentiation
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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