Role of MD-2 in TLR2- and TLR4-mediated recognition of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and activation of chemokine genes

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Abstract

MD-2 is associated with TLR4 on the cell surface and enables TLR4 to respond to LPS. TLR2 without MD-2 does not respond to pure protein-free endotoxic LPS, ReLPS, and lipid A. MD-2 enables TLR2 to respond to non-activating LPS, ReLPS, and lipid A, and enhances TLR2-mediated responses to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, protein-containing LPS, peptidoglycan, and lipoteichoic acid. MD-2 enables TLR4 to respond to a wide variety of endotoxic LPS partial structures, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive lipoteichoic acid, but not to Gram-positive bacteria, peptidoglycan, and lipopeptide. MD-2 physically associates with both TLR4 and TLR2, but the association with TLR2 is weaker than with TLR4. Also, MD-2 and TLR2 and TLR4 enhance each other's expression. The highest induced genes in human monocytes stimulated with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cell wall components are chemokine genes, and IL-8 is the highest induced chemokine. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria activate TLR2→ MyD88→IRAK→TRAF→NIK→IKK→NF-κB signal transduction pathway that induces transcription of the IL-8 gene. Therefore, TLR2 is a functional receptor for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and it induces activation of IL-8.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)401-405
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Endotoxin Research
Volume6
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 2000

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Gram-Positive Bacteria
Gram-Negative Bacteria
Interleukin-8
Chemokines
Transcriptional Activation
Lipid A
Bacteria
Peptidoglycan
Genes
Chemical activation
Lipopeptides
Cellular Structures
Cell Wall
Monocytes
Signal Transduction
Proteins
Signal transduction
Transcription
Cells
Association reactions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Toxicology

Cite this

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title = "Role of MD-2 in TLR2- and TLR4-mediated recognition of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and activation of chemokine genes",
abstract = "MD-2 is associated with TLR4 on the cell surface and enables TLR4 to respond to LPS. TLR2 without MD-2 does not respond to pure protein-free endotoxic LPS, ReLPS, and lipid A. MD-2 enables TLR2 to respond to non-activating LPS, ReLPS, and lipid A, and enhances TLR2-mediated responses to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, protein-containing LPS, peptidoglycan, and lipoteichoic acid. MD-2 enables TLR4 to respond to a wide variety of endotoxic LPS partial structures, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive lipoteichoic acid, but not to Gram-positive bacteria, peptidoglycan, and lipopeptide. MD-2 physically associates with both TLR4 and TLR2, but the association with TLR2 is weaker than with TLR4. Also, MD-2 and TLR2 and TLR4 enhance each other's expression. The highest induced genes in human monocytes stimulated with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cell wall components are chemokine genes, and IL-8 is the highest induced chemokine. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria activate TLR2→ MyD88→IRAK→TRAF→NIK→IKK→NF-κB signal transduction pathway that induces transcription of the IL-8 gene. Therefore, TLR2 is a functional receptor for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and it induces activation of IL-8.",
author = "Roman Dziarski and Dipika Gupta",
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T1 - Role of MD-2 in TLR2- and TLR4-mediated recognition of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and activation of chemokine genes

AU - Dziarski, Roman

AU - Gupta, Dipika

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N2 - MD-2 is associated with TLR4 on the cell surface and enables TLR4 to respond to LPS. TLR2 without MD-2 does not respond to pure protein-free endotoxic LPS, ReLPS, and lipid A. MD-2 enables TLR2 to respond to non-activating LPS, ReLPS, and lipid A, and enhances TLR2-mediated responses to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, protein-containing LPS, peptidoglycan, and lipoteichoic acid. MD-2 enables TLR4 to respond to a wide variety of endotoxic LPS partial structures, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive lipoteichoic acid, but not to Gram-positive bacteria, peptidoglycan, and lipopeptide. MD-2 physically associates with both TLR4 and TLR2, but the association with TLR2 is weaker than with TLR4. Also, MD-2 and TLR2 and TLR4 enhance each other's expression. The highest induced genes in human monocytes stimulated with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cell wall components are chemokine genes, and IL-8 is the highest induced chemokine. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria activate TLR2→ MyD88→IRAK→TRAF→NIK→IKK→NF-κB signal transduction pathway that induces transcription of the IL-8 gene. Therefore, TLR2 is a functional receptor for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and it induces activation of IL-8.

AB - MD-2 is associated with TLR4 on the cell surface and enables TLR4 to respond to LPS. TLR2 without MD-2 does not respond to pure protein-free endotoxic LPS, ReLPS, and lipid A. MD-2 enables TLR2 to respond to non-activating LPS, ReLPS, and lipid A, and enhances TLR2-mediated responses to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, protein-containing LPS, peptidoglycan, and lipoteichoic acid. MD-2 enables TLR4 to respond to a wide variety of endotoxic LPS partial structures, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive lipoteichoic acid, but not to Gram-positive bacteria, peptidoglycan, and lipopeptide. MD-2 physically associates with both TLR4 and TLR2, but the association with TLR2 is weaker than with TLR4. Also, MD-2 and TLR2 and TLR4 enhance each other's expression. The highest induced genes in human monocytes stimulated with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cell wall components are chemokine genes, and IL-8 is the highest induced chemokine. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria activate TLR2→ MyD88→IRAK→TRAF→NIK→IKK→NF-κB signal transduction pathway that induces transcription of the IL-8 gene. Therefore, TLR2 is a functional receptor for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and it induces activation of IL-8.

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