• Rotavirus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. The greatest morbidity and mortality is observed among young infants in the developing world. • Fever, vomiting, and diarrhea are the most common signs and symptoms of the disease. • Although highly sensitive and specific antigen assays are commercially available, most diagnoses can be made based on clinical manifestations and will not require diagnostic testing. • Treatment is supportive, with special attention to be placed on the replacement of fluids. In most instances, this goal can be achieved through the use of oral rehydration solutions. • The use of probiotics, oral immunoglobulins, and nitazoxanide has been shown in some studies to be of benefit in children with prolonged diarrhea. However, further studies are needed before these therapies can be recommended for all patients. • The most dramatic effect on disease activity has been observed in countries in which rotavirus vaccination has been incorporated. These vaccines have been shown to be effective and safe. • Widespread vaccination will continue to alter the epidemiology of the disease and will prevent many hospitalizations and save many lives.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health