Objective: To assess the complications and outcomes associated with same-session bilateral ureteroscopy in a tertiary referral center, as same-session bilateral ureteroscopy for stone disease has been critiqued for the theoretical risk of injury to both ureters with subsequent risk to renal function. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all cases of bilateral ureteroscopy performed for urolithiasis by a single surgeon at out institution between 2009 and 2014. These were compared to a prospective unilateral ureteroscopy database. Results: There were 117 same-session bilateral ureteroscopic procedures performed in 113 patients totaling 234 ureteroscopies. A flexible ureteroscope was used in 228 ureters (97.4%), and 6 (2.6%) were semirigid only. Ureteral dilators were required in 8 (6.8%) cases. Pre-stenting was performed in 23 (19.6%) patients. Short-term complications were observed following 19 (16.2%) procedures, including 11 (9.4%) Clavien I, 4 (3.4%) Clavien II, and 4 (3.4%) Clavien III. Of the 84 (71.8%) patients who completed a 6-week follow-up, there were no long-term complications. Stone-free rates were 91.4% for patients imaged with abdominal x-ray and ultrasound, and 84.2% for those imaged with computed tomography scans. Neither complications nor re-admissions were significantly different in the unilateral group. Median length of follow-up for the entire cohort was 2.8 years (range 0-7 years). Conclusion: Bilateral ureteroscopy can be performed safely with short-term complications, consistent with published literature. We found no long-term complications and high stone-free rates. Bilateral ureteroscopy in a single procedure represents a viable standard of care for patients with bilateral stone disease.
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