Serum magnesium concentrations and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality among U.S. adults

Results from the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study

Xi Zhang, Jin Xia, Liana C. Del Gobbo, Adela Hruby, Qi Dai, Yiqing Song

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Few studies have examined the associations of serum magnesium (Mg) concentrations with total and cause-specific mortality in a nationally representative sample of US adults. We investigate the dose-response relationships of baseline serum Mg concentrations with risk of mortalities in a large, nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods: We analyzed prospective data of 14,353 participants aged 25-74 years with measures of serum Mg concentrations at baseline (1971-1975) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS). Mortality data was linked through December 31, 2011. We estimated the mortality hazard ratios (HRs), for participants within serum Mg categories of <0.7, 0.7-0.74, 0.75-0.79, 0.8-0.89 (referent), 0.9-0.94, 0.95-0.99, and ≥1.0 mmol/L using weighted multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Results: During a median follow-up of 28.6 years, 9012 deaths occurred, including 3959 CVD deaths, 1923 cancer deaths, and 708 stroke deaths. The multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of all-cause mortality across increasing categories of Mg were 1.34 (1.02, 1.77), 0.94 (0.75, 1.18), 1.08 (0.97, 1.19), 1.00 (referent), 1.05 (0.95, 1.16), 0.96 (0.79, 1.15), and 0.98 (0.76, 1.26). Similar trends were observed for cancer (HRs for serum Mg < 0.7: 1.39, 95% CI: 0.83, 2.32) and CVD mortality (HRs for serum Mg < 0.7: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.81, 2.02) but were not statistically significant. An elevated risk for stroke mortality was observed among participants with serum Mg < 0.70 mmol/L (HR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.18, 5.48). Conclusions: Very low serum Mg concentrations were significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in US adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalClinical Nutrition
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2017

Fingerprint

Nutrition Surveys
Magnesium
Mortality
Serum
Neoplasms
Stroke
Proportional Hazards Models

Keywords

  • All-cause mortality
  • Cancer mortality
  • CVD mortality
  • Mg deficiency
  • Serum Mg
  • Stroke mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

Cite this

Serum magnesium concentrations and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality among U.S. adults : Results from the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. / Zhang, Xi; Xia, Jin; Del Gobbo, Liana C.; Hruby, Adela; Dai, Qi; Song, Yiqing.

In: Clinical Nutrition, 01.01.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Serum magnesium concentrations and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality among U.S. adults: Results from the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study",
abstract = "Background: Few studies have examined the associations of serum magnesium (Mg) concentrations with total and cause-specific mortality in a nationally representative sample of US adults. We investigate the dose-response relationships of baseline serum Mg concentrations with risk of mortalities in a large, nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods: We analyzed prospective data of 14,353 participants aged 25-74 years with measures of serum Mg concentrations at baseline (1971-1975) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS). Mortality data was linked through December 31, 2011. We estimated the mortality hazard ratios (HRs), for participants within serum Mg categories of <0.7, 0.7-0.74, 0.75-0.79, 0.8-0.89 (referent), 0.9-0.94, 0.95-0.99, and ≥1.0 mmol/L using weighted multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Results: During a median follow-up of 28.6 years, 9012 deaths occurred, including 3959 CVD deaths, 1923 cancer deaths, and 708 stroke deaths. The multivariate-adjusted HRs (95{\%} CIs) of all-cause mortality across increasing categories of Mg were 1.34 (1.02, 1.77), 0.94 (0.75, 1.18), 1.08 (0.97, 1.19), 1.00 (referent), 1.05 (0.95, 1.16), 0.96 (0.79, 1.15), and 0.98 (0.76, 1.26). Similar trends were observed for cancer (HRs for serum Mg < 0.7: 1.39, 95{\%} CI: 0.83, 2.32) and CVD mortality (HRs for serum Mg < 0.7: 1.28, 95{\%} CI: 0.81, 2.02) but were not statistically significant. An elevated risk for stroke mortality was observed among participants with serum Mg < 0.70 mmol/L (HR: 2.55, 95{\%} CI: 1.18, 5.48). Conclusions: Very low serum Mg concentrations were significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in US adults.",
keywords = "All-cause mortality, Cancer mortality, CVD mortality, Mg deficiency, Serum Mg, Stroke mortality",
author = "Xi Zhang and Jin Xia and {Del Gobbo}, {Liana C.} and Adela Hruby and Qi Dai and Yiqing Song",
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T1 - Serum magnesium concentrations and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality among U.S. adults

T2 - Results from the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study

AU - Zhang, Xi

AU - Xia, Jin

AU - Del Gobbo, Liana C.

AU - Hruby, Adela

AU - Dai, Qi

AU - Song, Yiqing

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - Background: Few studies have examined the associations of serum magnesium (Mg) concentrations with total and cause-specific mortality in a nationally representative sample of US adults. We investigate the dose-response relationships of baseline serum Mg concentrations with risk of mortalities in a large, nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods: We analyzed prospective data of 14,353 participants aged 25-74 years with measures of serum Mg concentrations at baseline (1971-1975) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS). Mortality data was linked through December 31, 2011. We estimated the mortality hazard ratios (HRs), for participants within serum Mg categories of <0.7, 0.7-0.74, 0.75-0.79, 0.8-0.89 (referent), 0.9-0.94, 0.95-0.99, and ≥1.0 mmol/L using weighted multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Results: During a median follow-up of 28.6 years, 9012 deaths occurred, including 3959 CVD deaths, 1923 cancer deaths, and 708 stroke deaths. The multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of all-cause mortality across increasing categories of Mg were 1.34 (1.02, 1.77), 0.94 (0.75, 1.18), 1.08 (0.97, 1.19), 1.00 (referent), 1.05 (0.95, 1.16), 0.96 (0.79, 1.15), and 0.98 (0.76, 1.26). Similar trends were observed for cancer (HRs for serum Mg < 0.7: 1.39, 95% CI: 0.83, 2.32) and CVD mortality (HRs for serum Mg < 0.7: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.81, 2.02) but were not statistically significant. An elevated risk for stroke mortality was observed among participants with serum Mg < 0.70 mmol/L (HR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.18, 5.48). Conclusions: Very low serum Mg concentrations were significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in US adults.

AB - Background: Few studies have examined the associations of serum magnesium (Mg) concentrations with total and cause-specific mortality in a nationally representative sample of US adults. We investigate the dose-response relationships of baseline serum Mg concentrations with risk of mortalities in a large, nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods: We analyzed prospective data of 14,353 participants aged 25-74 years with measures of serum Mg concentrations at baseline (1971-1975) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS). Mortality data was linked through December 31, 2011. We estimated the mortality hazard ratios (HRs), for participants within serum Mg categories of <0.7, 0.7-0.74, 0.75-0.79, 0.8-0.89 (referent), 0.9-0.94, 0.95-0.99, and ≥1.0 mmol/L using weighted multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Results: During a median follow-up of 28.6 years, 9012 deaths occurred, including 3959 CVD deaths, 1923 cancer deaths, and 708 stroke deaths. The multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of all-cause mortality across increasing categories of Mg were 1.34 (1.02, 1.77), 0.94 (0.75, 1.18), 1.08 (0.97, 1.19), 1.00 (referent), 1.05 (0.95, 1.16), 0.96 (0.79, 1.15), and 0.98 (0.76, 1.26). Similar trends were observed for cancer (HRs for serum Mg < 0.7: 1.39, 95% CI: 0.83, 2.32) and CVD mortality (HRs for serum Mg < 0.7: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.81, 2.02) but were not statistically significant. An elevated risk for stroke mortality was observed among participants with serum Mg < 0.70 mmol/L (HR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.18, 5.48). Conclusions: Very low serum Mg concentrations were significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in US adults.

KW - All-cause mortality

KW - Cancer mortality

KW - CVD mortality

KW - Mg deficiency

KW - Serum Mg

KW - Stroke mortality

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DO - 10.1016/j.clnu.2017.08.021

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