Sex estimation from the metatarsals

Alexander G. Robling, Douglas H. Ubelaker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

66 Scopus citations


Discriminant-function analysis of osteometric data from the metatarsals of 200 individuals in the Terry Collection provides a reliable method for estimating sex. Functions derived from individual metatarsals and from complete sets of metatarsals are tested on the sample used to generate the functions and on two independent samples: one comprising 25 additional individuals from the Terry Collection and the other comprising 12 cadavers donated to the University of Missouri. Functions based on race-specific samples (blacks and whites) and on the pooled-race sample correctly classify 83 to 100% of each sample (including a jackknifed study sample), with a few exceptions. These results are similar to sex-estimation methods from other regions of the appendicular skeleton.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1062-1069
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Forensic Sciences
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • Discriminant analysis
  • Forensic science
  • Metatarsals
  • Osteometry
  • Physical anthropology
  • Sex estimation
  • Sexual dimorphism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Genetics

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