Shell disorder, immune evasion and transmission behaviors among human and animal retroviruses

Gerard Kian Meng Goh, A. Dunker, Vladimir N. Uversky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study involves measurements of percentages of intrinsic disorder (PIDs) in the GAG protein shells of various retroviruses. Unique patterns of shell protein disorder can be seen especially when GAG proteins (matrix M, capsid C, and nucleocapsid N) of primate and non-primate retroviruses are compared. HIV-1 presents the most unique pattern of disorder distribution with generally high levels of disorder in all three proteins, while EIAV (PIDs:: 26, 29, 13) is diametrically different from HIV-1 (N C M PIDs: 39.5 ± 3.0, 44.5 ± 2.6, 56.5 ± 10.8). The HTLV viruses (CPID: 32.8 ± 3.4) resemble HIV-2 (C PID: 26.6 ± 2.9) with a moderately disordered capsid. Totally distinct patterns, however, are seen for the non-primate retroviruses. They generally have highly disordered nucleocapsids (PID > 65%) and more ordered outer shells especially the matrix. These characteristics might be attributed to the differences in the way the retroviruses are transmitted, with non-primate viruses having greater non-sexual transmission components such as oral-fecal transmission. These differences are also evolutionarily related to the ways the viruses evade the host immune systems, and thus, have implications for oncolytic virotherapy and animal models in vaccine research. The importance of protein shell disorder in immune evasion, as related to the case of HIV-1, and the difficult search for its vaccines are highlighted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2312-2323
Number of pages12
JournalMolecular BioSystems
Volume11
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - May 22 2015

Fingerprint

Immune Evasion
Retroviridae
HIV-1
Nucleocapsid
Capsid
Proteins
Oncolytic Virotherapy
Vaccines
Equine infectious anemia virus
Viruses
Deltaretrovirus
HIV-2
Primates
Immune System
Animal Models
Research

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

Shell disorder, immune evasion and transmission behaviors among human and animal retroviruses. / Goh, Gerard Kian Meng; Dunker, A.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

In: Molecular BioSystems, Vol. 11, No. 8, 22.05.2015, p. 2312-2323.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Goh, Gerard Kian Meng ; Dunker, A. ; Uversky, Vladimir N. / Shell disorder, immune evasion and transmission behaviors among human and animal retroviruses. In: Molecular BioSystems. 2015 ; Vol. 11, No. 8. pp. 2312-2323.
@article{f5029426af5e42e39112001455e0be2c,
title = "Shell disorder, immune evasion and transmission behaviors among human and animal retroviruses",
abstract = "This study involves measurements of percentages of intrinsic disorder (PIDs) in the GAG protein shells of various retroviruses. Unique patterns of shell protein disorder can be seen especially when GAG proteins (matrix M, capsid C, and nucleocapsid N) of primate and non-primate retroviruses are compared. HIV-1 presents the most unique pattern of disorder distribution with generally high levels of disorder in all three proteins, while EIAV (PIDs:: 26, 29, 13) is diametrically different from HIV-1 (N C M PIDs: 39.5 ± 3.0, 44.5 ± 2.6, 56.5 ± 10.8). The HTLV viruses (CPID: 32.8 ± 3.4) resemble HIV-2 (C PID: 26.6 ± 2.9) with a moderately disordered capsid. Totally distinct patterns, however, are seen for the non-primate retroviruses. They generally have highly disordered nucleocapsids (PID > 65{\%}) and more ordered outer shells especially the matrix. These characteristics might be attributed to the differences in the way the retroviruses are transmitted, with non-primate viruses having greater non-sexual transmission components such as oral-fecal transmission. These differences are also evolutionarily related to the ways the viruses evade the host immune systems, and thus, have implications for oncolytic virotherapy and animal models in vaccine research. The importance of protein shell disorder in immune evasion, as related to the case of HIV-1, and the difficult search for its vaccines are highlighted.",
author = "Goh, {Gerard Kian Meng} and A. Dunker and Uversky, {Vladimir N.}",
year = "2015",
month = "5",
day = "22",
doi = "10.1039/c5mb00277j",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "11",
pages = "2312--2323",
journal = "Molecular BioSystems",
issn = "1742-206X",
publisher = "Royal Society of Chemistry",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Shell disorder, immune evasion and transmission behaviors among human and animal retroviruses

AU - Goh, Gerard Kian Meng

AU - Dunker, A.

AU - Uversky, Vladimir N.

PY - 2015/5/22

Y1 - 2015/5/22

N2 - This study involves measurements of percentages of intrinsic disorder (PIDs) in the GAG protein shells of various retroviruses. Unique patterns of shell protein disorder can be seen especially when GAG proteins (matrix M, capsid C, and nucleocapsid N) of primate and non-primate retroviruses are compared. HIV-1 presents the most unique pattern of disorder distribution with generally high levels of disorder in all three proteins, while EIAV (PIDs:: 26, 29, 13) is diametrically different from HIV-1 (N C M PIDs: 39.5 ± 3.0, 44.5 ± 2.6, 56.5 ± 10.8). The HTLV viruses (CPID: 32.8 ± 3.4) resemble HIV-2 (C PID: 26.6 ± 2.9) with a moderately disordered capsid. Totally distinct patterns, however, are seen for the non-primate retroviruses. They generally have highly disordered nucleocapsids (PID > 65%) and more ordered outer shells especially the matrix. These characteristics might be attributed to the differences in the way the retroviruses are transmitted, with non-primate viruses having greater non-sexual transmission components such as oral-fecal transmission. These differences are also evolutionarily related to the ways the viruses evade the host immune systems, and thus, have implications for oncolytic virotherapy and animal models in vaccine research. The importance of protein shell disorder in immune evasion, as related to the case of HIV-1, and the difficult search for its vaccines are highlighted.

AB - This study involves measurements of percentages of intrinsic disorder (PIDs) in the GAG protein shells of various retroviruses. Unique patterns of shell protein disorder can be seen especially when GAG proteins (matrix M, capsid C, and nucleocapsid N) of primate and non-primate retroviruses are compared. HIV-1 presents the most unique pattern of disorder distribution with generally high levels of disorder in all three proteins, while EIAV (PIDs:: 26, 29, 13) is diametrically different from HIV-1 (N C M PIDs: 39.5 ± 3.0, 44.5 ± 2.6, 56.5 ± 10.8). The HTLV viruses (CPID: 32.8 ± 3.4) resemble HIV-2 (C PID: 26.6 ± 2.9) with a moderately disordered capsid. Totally distinct patterns, however, are seen for the non-primate retroviruses. They generally have highly disordered nucleocapsids (PID > 65%) and more ordered outer shells especially the matrix. These characteristics might be attributed to the differences in the way the retroviruses are transmitted, with non-primate viruses having greater non-sexual transmission components such as oral-fecal transmission. These differences are also evolutionarily related to the ways the viruses evade the host immune systems, and thus, have implications for oncolytic virotherapy and animal models in vaccine research. The importance of protein shell disorder in immune evasion, as related to the case of HIV-1, and the difficult search for its vaccines are highlighted.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84953896846&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84953896846&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1039/c5mb00277j

DO - 10.1039/c5mb00277j

M3 - Article

C2 - 26080321

AN - SCOPUS:84953896846

VL - 11

SP - 2312

EP - 2323

JO - Molecular BioSystems

JF - Molecular BioSystems

SN - 1742-206X

IS - 8

ER -