Significant insight into the signaling pathways leading to activation of the Rel transcription factor family, collectively termed NF-κB, has been gained. Less well understood is how subsets of NF-κB-dependent genes are regulated in a signal specific manner. The SIMPL protein (signaling molecule that interacts with mouse pelle-like kinase) is required for full Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNFα) induced NF-κB activity. We show that SIMPL is required for steady-state hematopoiesis and the expression of a subset of TNFα induced genes whose products regulate hematopoietic cell activity. To gain insight into the mechanism through which SIMPL modulates gene expression we focused on the Tnf gene, an immune response regulator required for steady-state hematopoiesis. In response to TNFα SIMPL localizes to the Tnf gene promoter where it modulates the initiation of Tnf gene transcription. SIMPL binding partners identified by mass spectrometry include proteins involved in transcription and the interaction between SIMPL and MED1 was characterized in more detail. In response to TNFα, SIMPL is found in p65-MED1 complexes where SIMPL enhances p65/MED1/SIMPL complex formation. Together our results indicate that SIMPL functions as a TNFα-dependent p65 co-activator by facilitating the recruitment of MED1 to p65 containing transcriptional complexes to control the expression of a subset of TNFα-induced genes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)