The Ebola virus causes severe hemorrhagic fever and has a mortality rate that can be as high as 90%, yet no vaccines or approved therapeutics, to our knowledge, are available. To replicate and egress the infected host cell the Ebola virus uses VP40, its major matrix protein to assemble at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. The assembly and budding of VP40 from the plasma membrane of host cells seem still poorly understood. We investigated the assembly and egress of VP40 at the plasma membrane of human cells using single-particle tracking. Our results demonstrate that actin coordinates the movement and assembly of VP40, a critical step in viral egress. These findings underscore the ability of single-molecule techniques to investigate the interplay of VP40 and host proteins in viral replication.
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