Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder - Histogenesis, genetics, diagnosis, biomarkers, treatment, and prognosis

Xiaoyan Wang, Gregory T. MacLennan, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Liang Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare but highly aggressive malignancy with a dismal prognosis. Most patients present with advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. Hematuria is the most frequent presenting symptom. Histologically, small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is indistinguishable from its pulmonary counterpart. Coexistence with other types of carcinoma is common. Histogenesis is uncertain; there are several competing theories, including origin from stem cells, from urothelial cells, and from neuroendocrine cells in normal or metaplastic urothelium. The molecular pathogenesis remains unclear. Immunohistochemical staining can be extremely helpful in establishing the diagnosis, and in investigating the use of potential therapeutic strategies. Currently, combinations of surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy represent the main treatment options. The recent observation of c-kit and epidermal growth factor receptor expression in more than 25% of patients with urinary bladder small cell carcinoma opens new avenues for further investigation. Improvement in survival may depend upon the identification of new molecular markers to facilitate earlier diagnosis and the development of novel targeted therapies. In this paper, we review general aspects of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, focusing on the ways in which our understanding of this entity has been positively influenced by studies of the histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings, and by investigations of genetic alterations in this disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8-18
Number of pages11
JournalApplied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2007

Fingerprint

Small Cell Carcinoma
Urinary Bladder
Biomarkers
Urothelium
Neuroendocrine Cells
Therapeutic Uses
Hematuria
Therapeutics
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
Early Diagnosis
Radiotherapy
Stem Cells
Observation
Staining and Labeling
Carcinoma
Drug Therapy
Lung
Survival
Neoplasms

Keywords

  • Clonality
  • Genetics
  • Histogenesis
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Neoplasm
  • Prognosis
  • Small cell carcinoma
  • Staging
  • Treatment
  • Urinary bladder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Medical Laboratory Technology

Cite this

Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder - Histogenesis, genetics, diagnosis, biomarkers, treatment, and prognosis. / Wang, Xiaoyan; MacLennan, Gregory T.; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Cheng, Liang.

In: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology, Vol. 15, No. 1, 03.2007, p. 8-18.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{a5e55bc422c24fa59ae5bd3c61947f95,
title = "Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder - Histogenesis, genetics, diagnosis, biomarkers, treatment, and prognosis",
abstract = "Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare but highly aggressive malignancy with a dismal prognosis. Most patients present with advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. Hematuria is the most frequent presenting symptom. Histologically, small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is indistinguishable from its pulmonary counterpart. Coexistence with other types of carcinoma is common. Histogenesis is uncertain; there are several competing theories, including origin from stem cells, from urothelial cells, and from neuroendocrine cells in normal or metaplastic urothelium. The molecular pathogenesis remains unclear. Immunohistochemical staining can be extremely helpful in establishing the diagnosis, and in investigating the use of potential therapeutic strategies. Currently, combinations of surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy represent the main treatment options. The recent observation of c-kit and epidermal growth factor receptor expression in more than 25{\%} of patients with urinary bladder small cell carcinoma opens new avenues for further investigation. Improvement in survival may depend upon the identification of new molecular markers to facilitate earlier diagnosis and the development of novel targeted therapies. In this paper, we review general aspects of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, focusing on the ways in which our understanding of this entity has been positively influenced by studies of the histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings, and by investigations of genetic alterations in this disease.",
keywords = "Clonality, Genetics, Histogenesis, Immunohistochemistry, Neoplasm, Prognosis, Small cell carcinoma, Staging, Treatment, Urinary bladder",
author = "Xiaoyan Wang and MacLennan, {Gregory T.} and Antonio Lopez-Beltran and Liang Cheng",
year = "2007",
month = "3",
doi = "10.1097/01.pai.0000213106.12731.d7",
language = "English",
volume = "15",
pages = "8--18",
journal = "Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology",
issn = "1541-2016",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder - Histogenesis, genetics, diagnosis, biomarkers, treatment, and prognosis

AU - Wang, Xiaoyan

AU - MacLennan, Gregory T.

AU - Lopez-Beltran, Antonio

AU - Cheng, Liang

PY - 2007/3

Y1 - 2007/3

N2 - Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare but highly aggressive malignancy with a dismal prognosis. Most patients present with advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. Hematuria is the most frequent presenting symptom. Histologically, small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is indistinguishable from its pulmonary counterpart. Coexistence with other types of carcinoma is common. Histogenesis is uncertain; there are several competing theories, including origin from stem cells, from urothelial cells, and from neuroendocrine cells in normal or metaplastic urothelium. The molecular pathogenesis remains unclear. Immunohistochemical staining can be extremely helpful in establishing the diagnosis, and in investigating the use of potential therapeutic strategies. Currently, combinations of surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy represent the main treatment options. The recent observation of c-kit and epidermal growth factor receptor expression in more than 25% of patients with urinary bladder small cell carcinoma opens new avenues for further investigation. Improvement in survival may depend upon the identification of new molecular markers to facilitate earlier diagnosis and the development of novel targeted therapies. In this paper, we review general aspects of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, focusing on the ways in which our understanding of this entity has been positively influenced by studies of the histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings, and by investigations of genetic alterations in this disease.

AB - Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare but highly aggressive malignancy with a dismal prognosis. Most patients present with advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. Hematuria is the most frequent presenting symptom. Histologically, small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is indistinguishable from its pulmonary counterpart. Coexistence with other types of carcinoma is common. Histogenesis is uncertain; there are several competing theories, including origin from stem cells, from urothelial cells, and from neuroendocrine cells in normal or metaplastic urothelium. The molecular pathogenesis remains unclear. Immunohistochemical staining can be extremely helpful in establishing the diagnosis, and in investigating the use of potential therapeutic strategies. Currently, combinations of surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy represent the main treatment options. The recent observation of c-kit and epidermal growth factor receptor expression in more than 25% of patients with urinary bladder small cell carcinoma opens new avenues for further investigation. Improvement in survival may depend upon the identification of new molecular markers to facilitate earlier diagnosis and the development of novel targeted therapies. In this paper, we review general aspects of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, focusing on the ways in which our understanding of this entity has been positively influenced by studies of the histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings, and by investigations of genetic alterations in this disease.

KW - Clonality

KW - Genetics

KW - Histogenesis

KW - Immunohistochemistry

KW - Neoplasm

KW - Prognosis

KW - Small cell carcinoma

KW - Staging

KW - Treatment

KW - Urinary bladder

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34247599926&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34247599926&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/01.pai.0000213106.12731.d7

DO - 10.1097/01.pai.0000213106.12731.d7

M3 - Article

C2 - 17536302

AN - SCOPUS:34247599926

VL - 15

SP - 8

EP - 18

JO - Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology

JF - Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology

SN - 1541-2016

IS - 1

ER -