Smoking and diabetes: Readiness for change and provider advice

Laurie Ruggiero, Joseph S. Rossi, James O. Prochaska, Russell E. Glasgow, Mary De Groot, Janet M. Dryfoos, Gabrielle R. Reed, C. Tracy Orleans, Alexander V. Prokhorov, Kim Kelly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Scopus citations


Smoking is a serious health risk, particularly for people with diabetes. This study was designed to examine important aspects of smoking in a large group of individuals with diabetes. A survey was mailed to 2,056 individuals with diabetes. The variables examined were the stages of change for smoking, prevalence of quitting advice given by health care providers, and the patterns of readiness for change. The majority (57.8%) of current smokers were in the precontemplation stage. Comparisons on the stage of change indicated that more individuals with Type 2 diabetes have quit while there are more current smokers among those with Type 1 diabetes. Comparisons on current smokers indicated no differences on stage of change across the Type 1 and Type 2 groups, across three subgroups of individuals with Type 2 diabetes, or across duration of diabetes. Those who reported that they were given cessation advice were further along in the stages of change. These results suggest that the majority of individuals with diabetes who smoke are in the precontemplation stage of change and provider advice is important in moving smokers toward change. The current findings underscore the importance of assessing stage of change and providing stage-matched interventions when working with smokers with diabetes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)573-578
Number of pages6
JournalAddictive Behaviors
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 1999


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Toxicology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Ruggiero, L., Rossi, J. S., Prochaska, J. O., Glasgow, R. E., De Groot, M., Dryfoos, J. M., Reed, G. R., Orleans, C. T., Prokhorov, A. V., & Kelly, K. (1999). Smoking and diabetes: Readiness for change and provider advice. Addictive Behaviors, 24(4), 573-578.