Smooth muscle hyperplasia of the testicular adnexa: a clinicopathologic study of 12 cases

Fatimah Alruwaii, David J. Grignon, Muhammad T. Idrees

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Smooth muscle hyperplasia of the testicular adnexa (SMH-TA) is a rare mass-forming intrascrotal lesion. Although benign, it can be a diagnostic challenge, as we have seen in our consult practice. Herein, we discuss our experience with these lesions over 14 years. Twelve SMH-TA cases were identified in our institutional records between 2005 and 2019. The morphologic features were reviewed. Clinical information was obtained from physicians’ notes. The mean age was 51 years (range, 24–82 years). Six cases were on the left side, five on the right, and one was bilateral. The most common presentations were orchialgia (n = 10) and mass (n = 6). Two patients had a concurrent incarcerated inguinal hernia, and one had a recent groin trauma. Past medical history included 5 patients with previous surgeries in the inguinal region, 2 with a history of treated infections, and 1 with persistent chronic orchitis. Eight patients have undergone ultrasound imaging which showed lesions (n = 4), hematoma (n = 1), undescended testis (n = 1), or no abnormalities (n = 2). Grossly, the mean size was 1.7 cm (range, 1.0–3 cm). The lesions had ill-defined, focally cystic, pink-tan nodular surface. Microscopically, the lesions were comprised of an ill-defined smooth muscle proliferation arranged in fascicles or haphazard fashion, growing in a periductal, perivascular, interstitial, or most commonly in a mixed pattern. SMH-TA is a rare benign entity that can present clinically as orchialgia and/or a suspicious intrascrotal mass. As suggested in previous studies, we believe that this lesion represents a reactive process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)27-35
Number of pages9
JournalHuman pathology
StatePublished - May 2020


  • Epididymis
  • Orchialgia
  • Paratesticular mass
  • Paratestis
  • Smooth muscle hyperplasia
  • Testicular adnexa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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