Soluble forms of Toll-like receptor 4 are present in human saliva and modulate tumour necrosis factor-α secretion by macrophage-like cells

Susan Zunt, L. V. Burton, L. I. Goldblatt, E. E. Dobbins, Mythily Srinivasan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

45 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In health, mucosal inflammation is prevented by tightly regulated responses via Toll-like receptors (TLR) that interact with specific microbe associated molecular patterns. Currently, 13 TLRs have been identified. Based on the specificity of ligand recognition, TLR-2 and TLR-4 can recognize most oral commensal microorganisms. Recent identification of some soluble TLRs (sTLRs) suggests additional regulatory roles for these receptors. We report here the presence of sTLR-4 polypeptides in adult human saliva. Functionally, the salivary sTLR-4 suppressed cytokine secretion by activated macrophages. The sTLR-4 levels were elevated significantly in oral lichen planus (OLP), a chronic inflammatory condition of the oral mucosa characterized by clinical persistence. In contrast, the epithelial cells in the saliva of OLP subjects expressed significantly reduced TLR-2 and TLR-4 mRNA that correlated with fewer bacteria/salivary epithelial cells. Investigating the soluble and cellular components of saliva is useful in identifying potential biomarkers for oral mucosal lesions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)285-293
Number of pages9
JournalClinical and Experimental Immunology
Volume156
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2009
Externally publishedYes

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Toll-Like Receptor 4
Saliva
Oral Lichen Planus
Toll-Like Receptor 2
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Macrophages
Epithelial Cells
Toll-Like Receptors
Mouth Mucosa
Biomarkers
Cytokines
Ligands
Inflammation
Bacteria
Messenger RNA
Peptides
Health

Keywords

  • Epithelial cells
  • OLP
  • Saliva
  • TLR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy

Cite this

Soluble forms of Toll-like receptor 4 are present in human saliva and modulate tumour necrosis factor-α secretion by macrophage-like cells. / Zunt, Susan; Burton, L. V.; Goldblatt, L. I.; Dobbins, E. E.; Srinivasan, Mythily.

In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Vol. 156, No. 2, 05.2009, p. 285-293.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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