Soluble forms of Toll-like receptor 4 are present in human saliva and modulate tumour necrosis factor-α secretion by macrophage-like cells

S. L. Zunt, L. V. Burton, L. I. Goldblatt, E. E. Dobbins, M. Srinivasan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

49 Scopus citations

Abstract

In health, mucosal inflammation is prevented by tightly regulated responses via Toll-like receptors (TLR) that interact with specific microbe associated molecular patterns. Currently, 13 TLRs have been identified. Based on the specificity of ligand recognition, TLR-2 and TLR-4 can recognize most oral commensal microorganisms. Recent identification of some soluble TLRs (sTLRs) suggests additional regulatory roles for these receptors. We report here the presence of sTLR-4 polypeptides in adult human saliva. Functionally, the salivary sTLR-4 suppressed cytokine secretion by activated macrophages. The sTLR-4 levels were elevated significantly in oral lichen planus (OLP), a chronic inflammatory condition of the oral mucosa characterized by clinical persistence. In contrast, the epithelial cells in the saliva of OLP subjects expressed significantly reduced TLR-2 and TLR-4 mRNA that correlated with fewer bacteria/salivary epithelial cells. Investigating the soluble and cellular components of saliva is useful in identifying potential biomarkers for oral mucosal lesions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)285-293
Number of pages9
JournalClinical and Experimental Immunology
Volume156
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2009
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Epithelial cells
  • OLP
  • Saliva
  • TLR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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